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Updated: 34 min 43 sec ago

Measuring the acute cardiovascular effects of shisha smoking: a cross-sectional study.

Sat, 2014-07-26 06:30

Measuring the acute cardiovascular effects of shisha smoking: a cross-sectional study.

JRSM Open. 2014 Jun;5(6):2054270414531127

Authors: Kadhum M, Jaffery A, Haq A, Bacon J, Madden B

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the acute cardiovascular effects of smoking shisha.
DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was carried out in six shisha cafes. Participants smoked shisha for a period between 45?min (minimum) and 90?min (maximum). The same brand of tobacco and coal was used.
SETTING: London, UK.
PARTICIPANTS: Participants were those who had ordered a shisha to smoke and consented to have their blood pressure, heart rate and carbon monoxide levels measured. Excluded subjects were those who had smoked shisha in the previous 24?h, who smoke cigarettes or who suffered from cardiorespiratory problems.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Blood pressure was measured using a sphygmomanometer. Pulse was measured by palpation of the radial artery. Carbon monoxide levels were obtained via a carbon monoxide monitor. These indices were measured before the participants began to smoke shisha and after they finished or when the maximum 90?min time period was reached.
RESULTS: Mean arterial blood pressure increased from 96?mmHg to 108?mmHg (p?<?0.001). Heart rate increased from 77 to 91?bpm (p?<?0.001). Carbon monoxide increased from an average of 3 to 35?ppm (p?<?0.001). A correlation analysis showed no relationship between carbon monoxide and the other indices measured.
CONCLUSION: The acute heart rate, blood pressure and carbon monoxide levels were seen to rise significantly after smoking shisha. The weak correlation between carbon monoxide levels and the other variables suggests that carbon monoxide levels had not contributed to their significant increase.

PMID: 25057403 [PubMed]

Smoking among dental students at King Saud University: Consumption patterns and risk factors.

Sat, 2014-07-26 06:30

Smoking among dental students at King Saud University: Consumption patterns and risk factors.

Saudi Dent J. 2014 Jul;26(3):88-95

Authors: AlSwuailem AS, AlShehri MK, Al-Sadhan S

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess smoking prevalence among dental students at King Saud University (KSU) and to determine possible risk factors of tobacco use.
METHODS: A self-addressed invitation letter was sent to all dental students (males and females) at KSU requesting participation in this study. Data on smoking habits, associated risk factors, and demographic factors, such as age, marital status, residency status, the student's year of study, and grade point average, were collected by an electronic self-administered questionnaire sent via email. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Significant differences between different groups were assessed with a Pearson Chi-Square test at ? = 0.05. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) and to determine the effect of different risk factors on students' smoking habits.
RESULTS: Of the 600 registered dental students, 400 students responded (230 males, 170 females), representing a response rate of 67%. More male than female students were current smokers (27.6% vs. 2.4%, p < 0.001). Most smokers used shisha tobacco only (N = 35, 51.5%), followed by both shisha tobacco and cigarettes (N = 17, 25%), or cigarettes only (N = 16, 23.5%). Male students were about 4 times more likely to be smokers if all or most of their friends were smokers compared to students who had some friends who smoked (OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.9-7.7). A high proportion of current smokers (47.8%) reported stress as the main reason for smoking. Twenty-six percent of dental students (N = 87) who are currently nonsmokers reported that they have used tobacco at some point in their lives. Over two thirds of sampled students (63%) believed that public tobacco usage is not well addressed in the current college curriculum.
CONCLUSION: Approximately one in every four male dental students at KSU is a smoker. Having friends who are smokers was the most important risk factor associated with smoking. There is a general belief among dental students that public tobacco use is not well addressed in the dental college curriculum.

PMID: 25057228 [PubMed]

Experimentation and use of cigarette and other tobacco products among adolescents in the Brazilian state capitals (PeNSE 2012).

Thu, 2014-07-24 06:44

Experimentation and use of cigarette and other tobacco products among adolescents in the Brazilian state capitals (PeNSE 2012).

Rev Bras Epidemiol. 2014;17(Suppl 1):62-76

Authors: Barreto SM, Giatti L, Oliveira-Campos M, Andreazzi MA, Malta DC

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Nicotine dependence establishes itself more rapidly among adolescents than among adults. Tobacco occupies the fourth place in the rank of main risk factors for non-communicable diseases in the continent. Studies reveal that other forms of tobacco use have increased among adolescents.
METHODS: Were included the 9th grade students from the 26 State Capitals and the Federal District. who were participants of the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE), in 2012. Factors independently associated with experimentation and regular use of cigarettes were investigated by means of multinomial logistic regression, using as reference "never tried a cigarette". The use of other tobacco products included cigar, pipe, narghile and others.
RESULTS: Of the in the 61,037 participants in the 26 Brazilian capitals and the Federal District, 22.7% (95%CI 21.7 - 23.5) had experimented cigarettes, 6.1% (95%CI 5.6 - 6.6) are regular smokers and 7.1% (95%CI 6.5 - 7.7) had used other tobacco products, with half of them also being regular smokers. The chances of experimenting and being a regular smoker increased with age and according to the frequency of weekly exposure to other smokers. These chances were also higher among students who worked, who lived in monoparental families or without their parents, and those who felt that their parents would not mind if they smoked.
CONCLUSION: Results reinforce the association between social disadvantages and experimenting and regular smoking. In addition, the use of other tobacco products is worthy of attention and may lead to regular smoking.

PMID: 25054254 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Awareness and Use of Non-conventional Tobacco Products Among U.S. Students, 2012.

Tue, 2014-07-22 06:49

Awareness and Use of Non-conventional Tobacco Products Among U.S. Students, 2012.

Am J Prev Med. 2014 Aug;47(2 Suppl 1):S36-52

Authors: Wang B, King BA, Corey CG, Arrazola RA, Johnson SE

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Increasing diversity of the tobacco product landscape, including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), hookah, snus, and dissolvable tobacco products (dissolvables), raises concerns about the public health impact of these non-conventional tobacco products among youth.
PURPOSE: This study assessed awareness, ever use, and current use of non-conventional tobacco products among U.S. students in 2012, overall and by demographic and tobacco use characteristics.
METHODS: Data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative survey of U.S. middle and high school students, were analyzed in 2013. Prevalence of awareness, ever use, and current use of e-cigarettes, hookah, snus, and dissolvables were calculated overall and by sex, school level, race/ethnicity, and conventional tobacco product use, including cigarettes, cigars, or smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip).
RESULTS: Overall, 50.3% of students were aware of e-cigarettes; prevalence of ever and current use of e-cigarettes was 6.8% and 2.1%, respectively. Awareness of hookah was 41.2% among all students, and that of ever and current use were 8.9% and 3.6%, respectively. Overall awareness; ever; and current use of snus (32%, 5.3%, 1.7%, respectively) and dissolvables (19.3%, 2.0%, 0.7%, respectively) were generally lower than those of e-cigarettes or hookah. Conventional tobacco product users were more likely to be aware of and to use non-conventional tobacco products.
CONCLUSIONS: Many U.S. students are aware of and use non-conventional tobacco products. Evidence-based interventions should be implemented to prevent and reduce all tobacco use among youth.

PMID: 25044194 [PubMed - in process]

Youth tobacco cessation: quitting intentions and past-year quit attempts.

Tue, 2014-07-22 06:49

Youth tobacco cessation: quitting intentions and past-year quit attempts.

Am J Prev Med. 2014 Aug;47(2 Suppl 1):S15-27

Authors: Tworek C, Schauer GL, Wu CC, Malarcher AM, Jackson KJ, Hoffman AC

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Despite declining use of conventional tobacco products, youth use of non-cigarette tobacco has become prevalent; however, quitting behaviors remain largely unexplored.
PURPOSE: To examine nationally representative data on quit intentions and past-year attempts to quit all tobacco use among current youth tobacco users.
METHODS: In 2013, data were analyzed from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS). Weighted prevalence estimates of quit intentions and past-year quit attempts for current youth tobacco users are presented.
RESULTS: Prevalence of quit intentions and past-year attempts to quit all tobacco use were 52.8% and 51.5%, respectively, among current youth tobacco users. Among non-mutually exclusive groups, current cigarette smokers had the highest prevalence of quit intentions (56.8%) and past-year quit attempts (52.5%), whereas current hookah users had the lowest prevalence of quit intentions (41.5%) and past-year quit attempts (43.7%). Quit intentions among black, non-Hispanics (65.0%) and Hispanics (60.4%) were significantly higher versus white, non-Hispanics (47.5%). Youth reporting parental advice against tobacco had significantly higher prevalence of quit intentions (56.7%) and past-year quit attempts (55.0%) than those not reporting parental advice. Youth who agreed all tobacco products are dangerous (58.5%) had significantly higher prevalence of quit intentions than those who disagreed (37.0%).
CONCLUSIONS: Continued efforts are needed to better understand youth motivation for quitting all tobacco products. Public health messaging about the dangers of all tobacco and cessation efforts should be aimed at the full range of tobacco products, not just cigarettes, and tailored to meet the needs of youth polytobacco users.

PMID: 25044192 [PubMed - in process]

Investigation of Exclusive Narghile Smokers: Deficiency and Incapacity Measured by Spirometry and 6-Minute Walk Test.

Thu, 2014-07-10 06:37

Investigation of Exclusive Narghile Smokers: Deficiency and Incapacity Measured by Spirometry and 6-Minute Walk Test.

Respir Care. 2014 Jul 8;

Authors: Ben Saad H, Babba M, Boukamcha R, Ghannouchi I, Latiri I, Mezghenni S, Zedini C, Rouatbi S

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Studies on the submaximal aerobic capacity of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS) seem necessary in view of effective prevention of cardiorespiratory diseases. The goal of the study was to assess, by 6-min walk test (6MWT) data, the submaximal aerobic capacity of ENS, to identify factors influencing their 6-min walk distance (6MWD), and to compare their data with those of a healthy non-smoker (HNS) group.
METHODS: Seventy 20-60-y-old male ENS were included. Narghile use (narghile-years) and anthropometric, clinical, spirometric, and 6MWT data were collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify factors influencing 6MWD. Data of a subgroup of 40-60-y-old ENS (n = 25) were compared with those of an age-matched HNS group (n = 53).
RESULTS: The median (first to third quartile) for age and narghile use were 32 (26-43) and 17 (8-32) narghile-years, respectively. The profile of ENS performing the 6MWT was as follows: at the end of the 6MWT, 34% and 9% had a low heart rate (< 60% of maximum predicted) and high dyspnea scores (> 5/10, visual analog scale), respectively; 3% had an oxyhemoglobin saturation decrease of > 5 points during the test; and 20% had an abnormal 6MWD (less than the lower limit of the normal range). The factors that significantly influenced the 6MWD, explaining 38% of its variability, are included in the following equation: 6MWD (m) = 742.63 - 5.20 × body mass index (kg/m(2)) + 25.23 × FEV1 (L) - 0.44 × narghile use (narghile-years). Compared with HNS, the subgroup of ENS had a significantly lower 6MWD (98 ± 7 vs 87 ± 9% predicted, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Narghile use may play a role in reducing submaximal aerobic capacity. The present study suggests that a program of pulmonary rehabilitation is an excellent axis to follow.

PMID: 25006270 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Hookah Use Among US High School Seniors.

Wed, 2014-07-09 14:35

Hookah Use Among US High School Seniors.

Pediatrics. 2014 Jul 7;

Authors: Palamar JJ, Zhou S, Sherman S, Weitzman M

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Prevalence of hookah use is increasing significantly among adolescents. This study aimed to delineate demographic and socioeconomic correlates of hookah use among high school seniors in the United States. We hypothesized that more impoverished adolescents and those who smoked cigarettes would be more likely to use hookahs.METHODS: Data were examined for 5540 high school seniors in Monitoring the Future (years 2010-2012), an annual nationally representative survey of high school students in the United States. Using data weights provided by Monitoring the Future, we used multivariable binary logistic regression to delineate correlates of hookah use in the last 12 months.RESULTS: Eighteen percent of students reported hookah use in the past year. Compared with white students, black students were at lower odds for use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.27, P < .0001). High parent education increased the odds for use (AOR = 1.58, P < .001), and student weekly income from a job of >$50/week (AOR = 1.26, P < .05) or $11 to $50 per week from other sources (AOR = 1.35, P < .01) also increased odds for use. Males and urban students were also at higher odds for use, as were users of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit substances. Former cigarette smokers were at higher risk, and current smokers were at highest risk for use.CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents of higher socioeconomic status appear to be at particularly high risk for hookah use in the United States. Prevention efforts must target this group as prevalence continues to increase.

PMID: 25002664 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Hookah Smoking Among Young Adults in Southern California.

Tue, 2014-07-01 06:59

Hookah Smoking Among Young Adults in Southern California.

Nurs Res. 2014 July/August;63(4):300-306

Authors: Rezk-Hanna M, Macabasco-O?Connell A, Woo M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Hookah (water pipe) smoking is a form of tobacco use, historically from the Middle East and India that is fueling a contemporary epidemic of tobacco abuse and a nationwide public health crisis, particularly among young adults. There is little information on factors influencing hookah smoking and health beliefs of hookah smokers.
OBJECTIVES: Guided by the health belief model, the purpose of this study was to assess young adult hookah smokers' perceptions, attitudes, beliefs, and preferences toward hookah smoking and identify factors that may influence heavy (>3 times per week) versus light hookah smoking.
METHODS: A cross-sectional design was used for this study. Participants were recruited at hookah lounges in southern California. A sample of participants who smoke hookah and were between 18 and 30 years of age completed a short survey about their perceptions, attitudes, beliefs, initiation, and frequency of hookah smoking. Characteristics of light and heavy hookah smokers were compared using t tests and chi-square tests. Content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data.
RESULTS: Participants (N = 91) had a mean age of 24 (SD = 2.7), and 65% were men; 24% reported smoking before the age of 18, and 73.6% of participants smoked more than once a week. Men were heavier smokers in comparison to women (p = .006), 57% believed that hookah was not harmful to their health, and 60% reported socialization as the main reason why they smoked hookah.
DISCUSSION: It is critical to advocate for greater research on the health effects of hookah smoking and dissemination of these findings to the public, particularly to young adults.

PMID: 24977727 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Hookah use among college students: Prevalence, drug use, and mental health.

Tue, 2014-06-03 06:57

Hookah use among college students: Prevalence, drug use, and mental health.

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014 May 14;

Authors: Goodwin RD, Grinberg A, Shapiro J, Keith D, McNeil MP, Taha F, Jiang B, Hart CL

Abstract
BACKGROUND: There is consistent evidence that hookah use is as, if not more, harmful than cigarette use. Yet, hookah users underestimate the potential deleterious effects of hookah use. This study examined the rates of hookah use and associated demographic characteristics in a sample of undergraduates at a small Northeastern university. This study also examined the relationships between hookah use and other substance use, mental health problems, and perceived levels of stress.
METHODS: Data were drawn from the Spring 2009 American Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) at one small, Northeastern university (N=1799). The relationships between hookah use and other substance use, mental health problems, and perceived stress levels were examined using logistic regression analyses.
RESULTS: Hookah use (in the past month) was reported among 14.1% (253/1799) of this sample of undergraduates. Hookah users were more likely to use other substances, including cigarettes, cannabis, alcohol, cocaine, and amphetamines. The strongest associations emerged between hookah use and alcohol and cigarette use. There were no significant associations found between hookah use and any mental health problems or perceived stress levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Hookah users are significantly more likely to use other substances, including alcohol, cigarettes, cannabis, cocaine, and amphetamines compared with non-hookah users. In contrast to cigarette smoking, hookah use does not appear to be associated with mental health problems or perceived stress levels in this sample of undergraduates. Further investigation into the prevalence and correlates of hookah use is needed in representative population samples.

PMID: 24882367 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Hookah Smoking in High School Students and Its Determinants in Iran: A Longitudinal Study.

Sat, 2014-05-24 06:38

Hookah Smoking in High School Students and Its Determinants in Iran: A Longitudinal Study.

Am J Mens Health. 2014 May 22;

Authors: Fakhari A, Mohammadpoorasl A, Nedjat S, Sharif Hosseini M, Fotouhi A

Abstract
Hookah smoking has increased worldwide, especially among youth, and has been identified as an emerging threat to public health. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence and transition rates in hookah smoking statuses and predictors of transitions among a representative sample of Iranian high school students. In this longitudinal study, a representative sample (n = 5197) of students in the northwest of Iran was assessed thrice with a 6-month interval in 2010 and 2011. A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure hookah smoking, demographic characteristics, and personal and environmental factors. In total, the prevalence of hookah use (at least once a month) in this study was 6.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.1, 6.9). Results indicated that 44.9% (95% CI = 43.0, 46.7) of the students in the sample at least tried hookah smoking. During 1 year, 18.5% and 1.5% of students who have never used hookah before had transitioned to experimenter and regular hookah smoking, respectively, and notably, 7.8% of experimenters had transitioned to regular hookah smoking. Adjusted for other factors, being male, regular cigarette smoking, and positive attitude toward smoking were factors associated with students' transition to hookah smoking status. The incidence rate of hookah smoking in adolescents is notable. The findings identified the co-occurrence of risky behaviors that support programs aimed at reducing or preventing high-risk behaviors simultaneously.

PMID: 24855098 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Nicotine and Carcinogen Exposure after Water Pipe Smoking in Hookah Bars.

Tue, 2014-05-20 07:14

Nicotine and Carcinogen Exposure after Water Pipe Smoking in Hookah Bars.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 May 16;

Authors: Helen GS, Benowitz NL, Dains KM, Havel C, Peng M, Jacob P

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Water pipe tobacco smoking is spreading globally and is increasingly becoming popular in the United States, particularly among young people. Although many perceive water pipe smoking to be relatively safe, clinical experimental studies indicate significant exposures to tobacco smoke carcinogens following water pipe use. We investigated biomarkers of nicotine intake and carcinogen exposure from water pipe smoking in the naturalistic setting of hookah bars.
METHODS: Fifty-five experienced water pipe users were studied before and after smoking water pipe in their customary way in a hookah bar. Urine samples were analyzed for nicotine, cotinine, the tobacco-specific nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), and mercapturic acid metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOC).
RESULTS: We found an average 73-fold increase in nicotine, 4-fold increase in cotinine, 2-fold increase in NNAL, and 14% to 91% increase in VOC mercapturic acid metabolites immediately following water pipe smoking. We saw moderate to high correlations between changes in tobacco-specific biomarkers (nicotine, cotinine, and NNAL) and several mercapturic acid metabolites of VOCs.
CONCLUSION: Water pipe smoking in a hookah bar is associated with significant nicotine intake and carcinogen exposure.
IMPACT: Given the significant intake of nicotine and carcinogens, chronic water pipe use could place users at increased risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(6); 1-12. ©2014 AACR.

PMID: 24836469 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Shisha versus cigarette smoking and endothelial function.

Wed, 2014-05-14 06:45

Shisha versus cigarette smoking and endothelial function.

Anadolu Kardiyol Derg. 2014 May 6;

Authors: Wiwanitkit S, Wiwanitkit V

PMID: 24818978 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Substance abuse in relation to religiosity and familial support in Iranian college students.

Tue, 2014-05-13 08:04

Substance abuse in relation to religiosity and familial support in Iranian college students.

Asian J Psychiatr. 2014 Jun;9:41-4

Authors: Mohammadpoorasl A, Ghahramanloo AA, Allahverdipour H, Augner C

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Drug abuse and alcohol use in young adults are a major public health problem. The aims of present study were to determine the prevalence of alcohol use and substance abuse and related factors in a sample of Iranian college students.
METHODS: The study took place in Tabriz (northwest of Iran) in April and May, 2011. The randomly selected sample consisted of 1837 college students. Data were collected in a survey. A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure smoking, sexual behavior, alcohol and drug use, religious belief, and parental support.
RESULTS: The prevalence of alcohol use in the past 30 days and ever drug abuse were 7.7% and 8.0%, respectively. After adjusting for other factors, living in dormitory in comparison to parental home (OR=0.61) and having higher score of religious beliefs (OR=0.98) were protective factors for ever use of illicit drugs. Being male (OR=1.89), living in the single house in comparison to parental home (OR=2.64), smoking (OR=2.0), alcohol use (OR=4.71), hookah smoking (OR=2.89), and having unsafe sex (OR=2.40) were risk factors ever use of illicit drugs.
CONCLUSION: Our results show low prevalence of alcohol use and drug abuse in Iranian college students and determined some of its associated factors. The findings of this research can be used for planning and evaluating interventions by considering risk and protective factors.

PMID: 24813035 [PubMed - in process]

The association between senior student tobacco use rate at school and alternative tobacco product use among junior students in Canadian secondary schools.

Fri, 2014-05-09 15:22
Related Articles

The association between senior student tobacco use rate at school and alternative tobacco product use among junior students in Canadian secondary schools.

Tob Induc Dis. 2014;12(1):8

Authors: Cole AG, Leatherdale ST

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The use of alternative tobacco products (ATPs) has grown in popularity among Canadian youth. This study examined the association between a school-level characteristic (the senior student tobacco use rate) and the current use of manufactured cigarettes, little cigars or cigarillos, cigars, roll-your-own cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (SLT), and a hookah among junior students.
METHODS: This study used nationally representative Canadian data from 29,495 students in grades 9 to 12 as part of the 2010/2011 Youth Smoking Survey. For each ATP, we described rates of senior and junior tobacco use, calculated the variance attributed to school-level factors, and examined the association between the senior student (grades 11 and 12) tobacco use rate and the current use of each ATP among junior students (grades 9 and 10) while accounting for relevant student-level characteristics. SAS 9.3 was used for all analyses.
RESULTS: Over half of schools sampled had senior students that reported using each ATP. School-level differences accounted for between 14.1% and 29.7% of the variability in ATP current use among junior students. Each one percent increase in the number of senior students at a school that currently use manufactured cigarettes, SLT, or a hookah was significantly independently associated with an increased likelihood that a junior student at that school currently used manufactured cigarettes (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.06), SLT (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.24), or a hookah (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.14).
CONCLUSIONS: Characteristics of the school environment a junior student attends appear to play an important role in ATP use, and tobacco control programs and policies should be designed to ensure that they include strategies to curb the use of all tobacco products. Additional evidence is needed for the impact of comprehensive school-based tobacco control approaches.

PMID: 24808817 [PubMed]

To what extent should waterpipe tobacco smoking become a public health priority?

Tue, 2014-05-06 06:36
Related Articles

To what extent should waterpipe tobacco smoking become a public health priority?

Addiction. 2013 Nov;108(11):1873-84

Authors: Jawad M, McEwen A, McNeill A, Shahab L

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) popularity is increasing world-wide, and health effects are emerging in the light of evidence that WTS is perceived by users as less harmful than cigarette smoking. However, there remains a paucity of available evidence from which to draw firm conclusions about its public health significance.
AIMS: This narrative review aims to summarize WTS literature to date to inform tobacco control specialists and health-care professionals about this phenomenon and help them to assess whether or not WTS should become a public health priority.
METHODS: Standard electronic databases as well as conference proceedings and personal libraries were searched in English, French and Arabic with inclusive terminology for the variety of names given to WTS.
FINDINGS: Waterpipe smoke contains significant levels of toxins, some of which are known to be carcinogenic to humans. Recent epidemiological trends have established an increasing prevalence of WTS in the Middle East and the United States, particularly among adolescents. It is used commonly across multiple ethnicities and both genders with less of a social gradient than cigarette smoking. Attitudes and beliefs have been researched widely and several reasons for believing it is less harmful than cigarette smoking include water filtration and social acceptability. A wide range of diseases have been associated with WTS, but research in this area is relatively underdeveloped and a better evidence base is needed. Worryingly, the waterpipe industry, including waterpipe cafes, operates in an almost completely unregulated market and employs deceptive marketing techniques to attract new users.
CONCLUSIONS: Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) appears to be on the increase, especially among younger users, and therefore represents a potential public health concern. While legislators should consider enforcing and extending existing tobacco laws to a growing WTS industry, further research is required to fill gaps in the literature and provide evidence-based interventions for tobacco control specialists and health-care professionals.

PMID: 23863044 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

FDA moves to regulate e-cigarettes and pipe and hookah tobacco.

Tue, 2014-04-29 06:35

FDA moves to regulate e-cigarettes and pipe and hookah tobacco.

BMJ. 2014;348:g2952

Authors: McCarthy M

PMID: 24769725 [PubMed - in process]

What are young adults smoking in their hookahs? A latent class analysis of substances smoked.

Tue, 2014-04-22 06:11

What are young adults smoking in their hookahs? A latent class analysis of substances smoked.

Addict Behav. 2014 Mar 26;

Authors: Sutfin EL, Song EY, Reboussin BA, Wolfson M

Abstract
RATIONALE: Hookah smoking continues to be a popular form of tobacco use, especially among college students. Although hookahs are commonly used to smoke tobacco, anecdotal evidence suggests other substances, including herbal shisha, marijuana and hashish may be used. However, little is known about the variety of substances smoked in hookahs, or correlates associated with different substances smoked.
METHODS: In fall 2010, 3447 students from 8 colleges in N.C. completed an online survey.
RESULTS: 44% of students reported ever smoking tobacco from a hookah. Of those ever users, 90% reported smoking flavored tobacco in a hookah, 45% marijuana, 37% herbal (non-tobacco) shisha, and 18% hashish. Latent class analysis revealed two distinct classes. The most prevalent class (77%) primarily smoked flavored tobacco, with minimal use of herbal shisha and marijuana and virtually no use of hashish. The second class (23%) primarily smoked marijuana, hashish and flavored tobacco with moderate use of herbal shisha. Logistic regression analysis adjusting for clustering within schools revealed that males, illicit drug users, daily, nondaily and former cigarette smokers and those whose mothers had higher levels of education were significantly more likely to be in the second class compared to the first.
CONCLUSIONS: Rates of lifetime use of hookah were high in our sample of college students. While the majority of hookah users smoked tobacco in hookahs, they also smoked other substances, notably marijuana and herbal shisha. Prevention efforts should recognize that students are using hookahs to smoke a variety of substances.

PMID: 24746345 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Bibliometric analysis of scientific publications on waterpipe (narghile, shisha, hookah) tobacco smoking during the period 2003-2012.

Tue, 2014-04-15 06:43

Bibliometric analysis of scientific publications on waterpipe (narghile, shisha, hookah) tobacco smoking during the period 2003-2012.

Tob Induc Dis. 2014 Apr 13;12(1):7

Authors: Zyoud SE, Al-Jabi SW, Sweileh WM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Waterpipe tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. However, the evaluation of scientific output in the field of waterpipe tobacco smoking has not been studied yet. The main objectives of this study were to analyze worldwide research output in the waterpipe tobacco smoking field, and to examine the authorship pattern and the citations retrieved from the Scopus database for over a decade.
METHODS: Data from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2012 were searched for documents with specific words regarding waterpipe tobacco smoking as "keywords" in the title. Scientific output was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies: (a) total and trends of contributions in waterpipe tobacco smoking research between 2003 and 2012; (b) authorship patterns and research productivity; (c) collaboration patterns; (d) the citations received by the publications; and (e) areas of interest of the published papers.
RESULTS: Worldwide there were 334 publications that met the criteria during the study period. The largest number of publications in waterpipe tobacco smoking were from the United States of America (USA) (33.5%), followed by Lebanon (15.3%), and France (10.5%). The total number of citations at the time of data analysis (October 18, 2013) was 4,352, with an average of 13 citations per document and a median (interquartile range) of 4.0 (1.0-16.0). The h-index of the retrieved documents was 34. The highest h-index by country was 27 for the USA, followed by 20 for Syrian Arab Republic and Lebanon.
CONCLUSIONS: The present data reveal a promising rise and a good start for research activity in the field of waterpipe tobacco smoking. More effort is needed to bridge the gap in waterpipe smoking-based research and to promote better evaluation of waterpipe smoking, risks, health effects, or control services worldwide.

PMID: 24725483 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The relation of self-esteem and illegal drug usage in high school students.

Fri, 2014-04-11 07:02

The relation of self-esteem and illegal drug usage in high school students.

Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2013 Nov;15(11):e7682

Authors: Khajehdaluee M, Zavar A, Alidoust M, Pourandi R

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is the period of stress and strain. Researchers have shown that adolescents without strong social supports would have tendency towards smoking and drug abuse.
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between low self-esteem and illegal drug abuse.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were 943 grades nine to 12 high school students, from Sarakhs during 2010 - 2011. Adolescents participated in the study, completed two self-report questionnaires. The first questionnaire included questions about individual and family information, smoking and illegal drug abuse history, and the second was the Rosenberg's self-esteem scale.
RESULTS: 53.8% of participants were male (507 individuals). The mean Rosenberg self-esteem score was 19.8 + 5.2, and the most frequent obtained scores were from 22 to 30. The difference of Rosenberg self-esteem score test between students who did not use any substance and those who had a history of smoking or drug abuse like heroin, pills, alcohols, betel nut (Nas) and other drugs (such as Pan and Hookah) was significant (P < 0.001). But this difference was not significant for marijuana (hashish) and opium. The difference of mean self-esteem scores between adolescents who lived with both or one of the parents, and those who did not live with any of parents, was significant (P = 0.04). There was also a significant association between the number of children in the family and self-esteem score.
CONCLUSIONS: The current study showed significant association between the Rosenberg self-esteem test results and smoking, and illegal drug abuse like heroin, pills, alcohol, Nas, and other substances. Therefore, increasing self-esteem is essential for preventing the adolescents' emotional and behavioral disorders. This fact could guide us to the new approaches for smoking and drug-abuse prevention in adolescents.

PMID: 24719686 [PubMed]

Fallacies about Water Pipe Use in Turkish University Students - What Might Be the Consequences?

Fri, 2014-04-11 07:02

Fallacies about Water Pipe Use in Turkish University Students - What Might Be the Consequences?

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(5):1977-80

Authors: Alvur MT, Cinar N, Akduran F, Dede C

Abstract
Background: The popularity of the narghile waterpipe, also referred to as hookah, shisha or hubble-bubble has increased tremendously during the past few decades. The aim of this study was to expose perception of narghile among a representative sample of university students in Sakarya University campus. Materials and Methods: Written approval was taken from the local education authority. An anonymous questionnaire which was prepared by the investigators and contained 17 questions was administered. Nine of the questions were related to socio-demographic characteristics and eight were related to the students harm perceptions about waterpipe. A total of 1,320 questionnaries were received and after preliminary evaluation 1,255 (95.7%) were found to be suitable for evaluation. The data was evaluated in SPSS program by using percentages and averages. Results: The mean±SD age of the students was 20.8±2.29 years (min 18, max 32). There were 864 (68.8%) females and 391 (31.2%) males. A total of 6.3 % of the students (n=79) believed that waterpipe is not harmful because its smoke does not burn the lungs. Almost one-third (n=318) think that the carcinogenic chemicals are filtered while waterpipe smoke passes from the water; 12.1 % of the students (n=152) checked "true" for the statement of "waterpipe smoke contains no nicotine". It is seen that 14.0 % of the students (n=176) think waterpipe with fruit/ aroma is healthier than plain waterpipe. Conclusions: As a result of this study, it is found out that a substantial number of university students have false beliefs on harmful effects of waterpipe smoking.

PMID: 24716921 [PubMed - in process]