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A Web-Based Program to Increase Knowledge and Reduce Cigarette and Nargila Smoking Among Arab University Students in Israel: Mixed-Methods Study to Test Acceptability.

Tue, 2015-02-24 06:53

A Web-Based Program to Increase Knowledge and Reduce Cigarette and Nargila Smoking Among Arab University Students in Israel: Mixed-Methods Study to Test Acceptability.

J Med Internet Res. 2015;17(2):e39

Authors: Essa-Hadad J, Linn S, Rafaeli S

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Among Arab citizens in Israel, cigarette and nargila (hookah, waterpipe) smoking is a serious public health problem, particularly among the young adult population. With the dramatic increase of Internet and computer use among Arab college and university students, a Web-based program may provide an easy, accessible tool to reduce smoking rates without heavy resource demands required by traditional methods.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to examine the acceptability and feasibility of a pilot Web-based program that provides tailored feedback to increase smoking knowledge and reduce cigarette and nargila smoking behaviors among Arab college/university students in Israel.
METHODS: A pilot Web-based program was developed, consisting of a self-administered questionnaire and feedback system on cigarette and nargila smoking. Arab university students were recruited to participate in a mixed-methods study, using both quantitative (pre-/posttest study design) and qualitative tools. A posttest was implemented at 1 month following participation in the intervention to assess any changes in smoking knowledge and behaviors. Focus group sessions were implemented to assess acceptability and preferences related to the Web-based program.
RESULTS: A total of 225 participants-response rate of 63.2% (225/356)-completed the intervention at baseline and at 1-month poststudy, and were used for the comparative analysis. Statistically significant reductions in nargila smoking among participants (P=.001) were found. The intervention did not result in reductions in cigarette smoking. However, the tailored Web intervention resulted in statistically significant increases in the intention to quit smoking (P=.021). No statistically significant increases in knowledge were seen at 1-month poststudy. Participants expressed high satisfaction with the intervention and 93.8% (211/225) of those who completed the intervention at both time intervals reported that they would recommend the program to their friends, indicating excellent acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. This was further emphasized in the focus group sessions.
CONCLUSIONS: A tailored Web-based program may be a promising tool to reduce nargila smoking among Arab university students in Israel. The tailored Web intervention was not successful at significantly reducing cigarette smoking or increasing knowledge. However, the intervention did increase participants' intention to quit smoking. Participants considered the Web-based tool to be an interesting, feasible, and highly acceptable strategy.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial Registration: ISRCTN registry ISRCTN59207794; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN59207794 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6VkYOBNOJ).

PMID: 25707034 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and hookah smokers after 12 weeks intermittent training.

Fri, 2015-02-20 06:06

Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and hookah smokers after 12 weeks intermittent training.

Libyan J Med. 2015;10:26680

Authors: Koubaa A, Triki M, Trabelsi H, Masmoudi L, Zeghal KN, Sahnoun Z, Hakim A

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary function is compromised in most smokers. Yet it is unknown whether exercise training improves pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers and whether these smokers respond in a similar way as do non-smokers.
AIM: To evaluate the effects of an interval exercise training program on pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers.
METHODS: Twelve cigarette smokers, 10 hookah smokers, and 11 non-smokers participated in our exercise program. All subjects performed 30 min of interval exercise (2 min of work followed by 1 min of rest) three times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity estimated at 70% of the subject's maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max). Pulmonary function was measured using spirometry, and maximum aerobic capacity was assessed by maximal exercise testing on a treadmill before the beginning and at the end of the exercise training program.
RESULTS: As expected, prior to the exercise intervention, the cigarette and hookah smokers had significantly lower pulmonary function than the non-smokers. The 12-week exercise training program did not significantly affect lung function as assessed by spirometry in the non-smoker group. However, it significantly increased both forced expiratory volume in 1 second and peak expiratory flow (PEF) in the cigarette smoker group, and PEF in the hookah smoker group. Our training program had its most notable impact on the cardiopulmonary system of smokers. In the non-smoker and cigarette smoker groups, the training program significantly improved VO2max (4.4 and 4.7%, respectively), v VO2max (6.7 and 5.6%, respectively), and the recovery index (7.9 and 10.5%, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: After 12 weeks of interval training program, the increase of VO2max and the decrease of recovery index and resting heart rate in the smoking subjects indicated better exercise tolerance. Although the intermittent training program altered pulmonary function only partially, both aerobic capacity and life quality were improved. Intermittent training should be advised in the clinical setting for subjects with adverse health behaviors.

PMID: 25694204 [PubMed - in process]

Understanding Attitudes, Beliefs, and Information Seeking Regarding Hookah Smoking in Parents of College Students: An Exploratory Qualitative Pilot Study.

Thu, 2015-02-19 06:45

Understanding Attitudes, Beliefs, and Information Seeking Regarding Hookah Smoking in Parents of College Students: An Exploratory Qualitative Pilot Study.

Respir Care. 2015 Feb 17;

Authors: Calvanese AV, Bingham MV, Martinasek MP, Friesen BK

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Hookah smoking has become increasingly common among young adults in the United States. College students engage in hookah smoking due to the increased exposure and popularity of hookah bars surrounding college campuses. There is limited information on parental perceptions of college students' hookah smoking.
METHODS: Forty-four telephone interviews were recorded and transcribed with parents of college students using a structured interview guide to explore perceptions, beliefs, behaviors, and information seeking regarding hookah smoking. The transcripts were coded and categorized using NVivo software, and emerging themes were uncovered.
RESULTS: Parents were lacking in awareness and knowledge of hookah smoking and health consequences. They often equated hookah smoking with bong use from their own college experiences. Although negative effects were equated with cigarette smoking, some parents reported beneficial effects of hookah smoking. Some parents disapproved of their college students smoking hookah, whereas others felt it was important that they try new behaviors in moderation. The varying responses indicate that parents were not receiving consistent messages, if any, regarding hookah tobacco smoking.
CONCLUSIONS: Informing parents of current novel risky behaviors such as hookah smoking is necessary as they are trusted sources of information for young adult children. Delivering information and educational messages to both students and their parents may be a worthy approach when developing campaigns to deter hookah smoking. There is a need to deter hookah smoking, as it remains a public health concern.

PMID: 25691766 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The Use of Fluorescence Technology versus Visual and Tactile Examination in the Detection of Oral Lesions: A Pilot Study.

Thu, 2015-02-19 06:45

The Use of Fluorescence Technology versus Visual and Tactile Examination in the Detection of Oral Lesions: A Pilot Study.

J Dent Hyg. 2015 Feb;89(1):63-71

Authors: Ayoub HM, Newcomb TL, McCombs GB, Bonnie M

Abstract
PURPOSE: This study compared the effectiveness of the VELscope® Vx versus visual and tactile intraoral examination in detecting oral lesions in an adult, high risk population.
METHODS: The pilot study compared the intra oral findings between 2 examination types. The sample was comprised of 30 participants who were addicted to either cigarettes or a dual addiction (cigarettes plus hookah). High risk population was defined as males who were current cigarette smokers or had a dual addiction. Two trained and experienced licensed dental hygienists conducted all examinations. Throughout the study, all visual and tactile intraoral examinations were conducted first by one dental hygienist first, followed by the VELscope® Vx fluorescence examinations by the second dental hygienist. All subjects received an inspection of the lips, labial and buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, dorsal, ventral and lateral sides of the tongue, hard and soft palate, and visual inspection of the oropharynx and uvula. Both evaluations took place in 1 visit in the Dental Hygiene Research Center at Old Dominion University and external sites. All participants received oral cancer screening information, recommendations, referrals for tobacco cessation programs and brochures on the 2 types of examinations conducted.
RESULTS: Participants were considered high risk based on demographics (current smokers and mostly males). Neither visual and tactile intraoral examination nor the VELscope® Vx examination showed positive lesions. No lesions were detected; therefore, no referrals were made. Data indicated the duration of tobacco use was significantly higher in cigarette smokers (14.1 years) than dual addiction smokers (5 years) (p>0.005). The average numbers of cigarettes smoked per day were 13.5 compared to 14.2 cigarettes for dual addiction smokers.
CONCLUSION: Results from this study suggest the visual and tactile intraoral examination produced comparative results to the VELscope® Vx examination. Findings from this study support that the VELscope® Vx is still considered an adjunct technology and cannot be used exclusively for oral cancer screening.

PMID: 25690067 [PubMed - in process]

Prevalence of Dokha Use among Secondary School Students in Ajman, United Arab Emirates.

Tue, 2015-02-17 06:17

Prevalence of Dokha Use among Secondary School Students in Ajman, United Arab Emirates.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16(2):427-30

Authors: Shemmari NA, Shaikh RB, Sreedharan J

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Dokha is a novel form of smoking in United Arab Emirates (UAE) on which there is very little published literature, especially among adolescents, and this form of smoking has been not been addressed adequately in the smoking cessation strategies in the UAE.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of dokha smoking among male secondary school students in Ajman UAE.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional survey was conducted among male secondary school students in Ajman, UAE. A total of 560 participants filled in self- administered questionnaires.
RESULTS: The prevalence of ever smokers was 39%; ever dokha smokers was 36% and current dokha smokers was 24%. The prevalence is very high when compared to other forms of smoking in the region and globally. Prevalence increased with increasing age and grade of students, prevalence of ever smokers, ever dokha smokers and current dokha smokers was lower in students in the science stream. 40% of the smokers used dokha, cigarettes and shisha, 30% used dokha and cigarettes, and 21% used dokha alone. 30% of the students smoked dokha on all days of the month.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of ever smokers, ever dokha smokers and current dokha smokers is very high. There is an urgent need for specific health promotion programs tailored to this age group on prevention of dokha smoking and policies restricting the availability of dokha to this age group.

PMID: 25684466 [PubMed - in process]

Youth Tobacco Product Use in the United States.

Wed, 2015-02-04 15:54

Youth Tobacco Product Use in the United States.

Pediatrics. 2015 Feb 2;

Authors: Lee YO, Hebert CJ, Nonnemaker JM, Kim AE

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Noncigarette tobacco products are increasingly popular among youth, especially cigarette smokers. Understanding multiple tobacco product use is necessary to assess the effects of tobacco products on population health. This study examines multiple tobacco product use and associated risk factors among US youth.
METHODS: Estimates of current use were calculated for cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, hookah, e-cigarettes, pipes, bidis, kreteks, snus, and dissolvable tobacco by using data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 24?658), a nationally representative sample of US middle and high school students. Associations between use patterns and demographic characteristics were examined by using multinomial logistic regression.
RESULTS: Among youth, 14.7% currently use 1 or more tobacco products. Of these, 2.8% use cigarettes exclusively, and 4% use 1 noncigarette product exclusively; 2.7% use cigarettes with another product (dual use), and 4.3% use 3 or more products (polytobacco use). Twice as many youth use e-cigarettes alone than dual use with cigarettes. Among smokers, polytobacco use was significantly associated with male gender (adjusted relative risk ratio [aRRR] = 3.71), by using flavored products (aRRR = 6.09), nicotine dependence (aRRR = 1.91), tobacco marketing receptivity (aRRR = 2.52), and perceived prevalence of peer use of tobacco products (aRRR = 3.61, 5.73).
CONCLUSIONS: More than twice as many youth in the United States currently use 2 or more tobacco products than cigarettes alone. Continued monitoring of tobacco use patterns is warranted, especially for e-cigarettes. Youth rates of multiple product use involving combustible products underscore needs for research assessing potential harms associated with these patterns.

PMID: 25647680 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

College Students View Hookah as a Safe Alternative to Cigarettes.

Wed, 2015-02-04 06:23

College Students View Hookah as a Safe Alternative to Cigarettes.

JAMA. 2015 Feb 3;313(5):456

Authors:

PMID: 25647197 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Risk Factors associated with Hookah use.

Wed, 2015-02-04 06:23

Risk Factors associated with Hookah use.

Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Feb 2;

Authors: Cavazos PA, Krauss MJ, Kim Y, Emery S

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Potential harms associated with hookah smoking are largely unrecognized and it is emerging as a trendy behavior. To help inform policy and preventive interventions, we used responses from a population survey of US adults to examine risk factors associated with hookah involvement.
METHOD: An online survey of 17,522 US adults was conducted in 2013. The nationally representative sample was drawn from GfK Group's KnowledgePanel plus off-panel recruitment. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between tobacco use patterns across multiple products (cigarettes, cigars, dissolvables), perceived harms towards regular pipe/hookah use, and demographic characteristics with hookah involvement (never used, ever used with/without reusing intent).
RESULT: Nearly 1 in 5 (16%) of the respondents had smoked hookah at least once in their life ("ever users"). Ever users of hookah were at higher risk of having used cigarettes, cigars, and dissolvable tobacco products (all p<.01). Odds for hookah use were greater for those who perceived regular pipe/hookah use as less dangerous (p<.05). Odds for hookah involvement were higher among young adults (p<.001), individuals with higher educational attainment (p<.01), and Hispanics/Latinos (p<.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Information about the public health harms associated with hookah smoking should be delivered to individuals at-risk for hookah smoking. It is likely that misconceptions about the safety of hookah smoking could be driving, at least in-part, its increase in popularity.

PMID: 25646349 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Risks of Hookah Smoking.

Tue, 2015-02-03 06:19

Risks of Hookah Smoking.

JAMA Pediatr. 2015 Feb 1;169(2):196

Authors: Moreno MA

PMID: 25642904 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Short-term nose-only water-pipe (shisha) smoking exposure accelerates coagulation and causes cardiac inflammation and oxidative stress in mice.

Sat, 2015-01-31 12:01

Short-term nose-only water-pipe (shisha) smoking exposure accelerates coagulation and causes cardiac inflammation and oxidative stress in mice.

Cell Physiol Biochem. 2015;35(2):829-40

Authors: Nemmar A, Yuvaraju P, Beegam S, Ali BH

Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIM: Water-pipe smoking (WPS) has acquired worldwide popularity, and is disseminating particularly rapidly in Europe and North America. However, little is known about the short-term cardiovascular effects of WPS.
METHODS: Presently, we assessed the short-term cardiovascular effects of nose-only exposure to mainstream WPS in BALB/c mice for 30 min/day for 5 consecutive days. Control mice were exposed to air. At the end of the exposure period, several cardiovascular endpoints were measured.
RESULTS: WPS did not affect the number of leukocytes and the plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Likewise, plasma levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase were not affected by WPS. By contrast, WPS aggravated in vivo thrombosis by shortening the thrombotic occlusion time in pial arterioles and venules. The number of circulating platelets was reduced by WPS suggesting the occurrence of platelet aggregation in vivo. Elevated concentrations of fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were seen after the exposure to WPS. Blood samples taken from mice exposed to WPS and exposed to adenosine diphosphate showed more platelet aggregation. The heart concentrations of IL-6 and TNF? were augmented by WPS. Likewise, heart levels of LPO, reactive oxygen species and the antioxidants catalase and GSH were increased by WPS. However, the systolic blood pressure and heart rate were not affected by WPS.
CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that short-term exposure to WPS exerts procoagulatory effects and induce cardiac inflammation and oxidative stress. At the time point investigated, there was no evidence for blood inflammation or oxidative stress. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

PMID: 25634761 [PubMed - in process]

[Severe recurrent carbon monoxide poisoning caused by smoking.]

Sat, 2015-01-24 06:28

[Severe recurrent carbon monoxide poisoning caused by smoking.]

Ugeskr Laeger. 2015 Jan 26;177(2A)

Authors: Rasmussen DB, Jacobsen VB

Abstract
Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odourless, colourless and toxic gas. Sources of CO include car exhaust, charcoal and tobacco smoke. CO binds to haemoglobin forming carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb). Heavy smokers have COHb levels up to 15%. There are reports of COHb levels of 24,2% caused by tobacco use and 28,7% after narghile smoking. A 54-year-old woman with schizophrenia was admitted at the intensive care unit with COHb levels as high as 35% caused by cigarillo smoking. She also presented with severe thiazide-induced hyponatriaemia and high haemoglobin levels.

PMID: 25612978 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Pattern of shisha and cigarette smoking in the general population in malaysia.

Thu, 2015-01-22 15:42

Pattern of shisha and cigarette smoking in the general population in malaysia.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(24):10841-6

Authors: Al-Naggar RA, Bobryshev YV, Anil S

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Smoking is a primary risk factor for cancer development. While most research has focused on smoking cigarettes, the increasing popularity of shisha or water pipe smoking has received less attention. This study measured the prevalence and risk factors for shisha and cigarette smoking and related knowledge.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in Shah Alam, Malaysia. Participants aged ? 18 years were selected from restaurants. Data regarding demographic variables, smoking patterns, and knowledge about shisha smoking were collected in local languages. Logistic regression was performed to assess risk factors.
RESULTS: Of 239 participants, 61.9 % were male and 99.2% revealed their smoking status. Some 57.4% were smokers: 50.7% only cigarettes, 5.9% only shisha and 42% both. Mean age of starting cigarette smoking was 17.5 ± 2.4 years and for shisha smoking 18.7 ± 2.0 years. In a univariate model, male gender, age 33-52 years and monthly income > MYR 4,000 increased the risk and unemployment and being a student decreased the risk. In a multivariate model, male gender increased the risk of smoking, while being a student decreased the risk, adjusting for age and income. The perception of shisha being less harmful than cigarettes was present in 14.6% and 7.5% had the opinion that shisha is not harmful at all, while 21.7% said that it is less addictive than cigarettes, 39.7% said that shisha did not contain tar and nicotine, 34.3% said that it did not contain carbon monoxide and 24.3% thought that shisha did not cause health problems.
CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of shisha and cigarette smoking is high in the general population in Malaysia and knowledge about shisha smoking is relatively low. The findings of our study might have implications for understanding similarities and differences in incidence of shisha and cigarette smoking in other cultural/geographic regions.

PMID: 25605187 [PubMed - in process]

Hookah use predicts cigarette smoking progression among college smokers.

Thu, 2015-01-15 06:30

Hookah use predicts cigarette smoking progression among college smokers.

Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Jan 12;

Authors: Doran N, Godfrey KM, Myers MG

Abstract
Aims: Hookah use is increasingly common among US college students, but little is known regarding the relationship between hookah and cigarette use. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the added nicotine exposure from hookah use may accelerate the uptake of cigarettes. Methods: An ethnically diverse sample of college students (n = 256; 43% female) who had smoked cigarettes in the past month completed two in-person interviews over six months. This study was a secondary analysis of data collected for a longitudinal study of young adult cigarette smoking patterns. Analyses examined 6-month changes in past 30 day cigarettes smoked and number of days smoking, controlling for age, nicotine dependence, marijuana use, and the respective baseline variable for each outcome. Results: Current hookah use (any use in past 30 days) was endorsed by 34% of participants at baseline, while 94% reported lifetime use. Change in past 30 day number of cigarettes (p = .043) and number of smoking days (p = .040) differed significantly between those who did or did not report recent hookah use at baseline. Hookah users reported a greater number of cigarettes smoked at the 6-month follow-up, while non-users decreased their smoking quantity. For number of smoking days in the past 30, hookah users reported a smaller decrease than non-users. Conclusions: Recent hookah use predicted increased cigarette smoking over 6 months in a college sample. These are the first prospective data demonstrating this relationship, indicating the value of developing strategies to prevent hookah use among college students.

PMID: 25586774 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in the United States: Findings from the National Adult Tobacco Survey.

Wed, 2014-12-24 06:47

Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in the United States: Findings from the National Adult Tobacco Survey.

Prev Med. 2014 Dec 20;

Authors: Salloum RG, Thrasher JF, Kates FR, Maziak W

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To report prevalence and correlates of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) use among U.S. adults.
METHODS: Data were from the 2009-2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Estimates of WTS ever and current use were reported overall, and by sex, age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, annual household income, sexual orientation, and cigarette smoking status. State-level prevalence rates of WTS ever were reported using choropleth thematic maps for the overall population and by sex.
RESULTS: The national prevalence of WTS ever was 9.8% and 1.5% for current use. WTS ever was more prevalent among those who are male (13.4%), 18-24 years old (28.4%) compared to older adults, non-Hispanic White (9.8%) compared to non-Hispanic Black, with some college education (12.4%) compared to no high school diploma, and reporting sexual minority status (21.1%) compared to heterosexuals. States with highest prevalence included DC(17.3%), NV(15.8%), and CA(15.5%).
CONCLUSION: WTS is now common among young adults in the US and high in regions where cigarette smoking prevalence is lowest and smoke-free policies have a longer history. To reduce its use, WTS should be included in smoke-free regulations and state and federal regulators should consider policy development in other areas, including taxes, labeling, and distribution.

PMID: 25535678 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Which Nicotine Products Are Gateways to Regular Use?: First-Tried Tobacco and Current Use in College Students.

Mon, 2014-12-22 06:42

Which Nicotine Products Are Gateways to Regular Use?: First-Tried Tobacco and Current Use in College Students.

Am J Prev Med. 2015 Jan;48(1S1):S86-S93

Authors: Meier EM, Tackett AP, Miller MB, Grant DM, Wagener TL

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The potential for emerging tobacco products (ETPs) to be gateway products for further tobacco use among youth is of significant concern.
PURPOSE: To examine use of various nicotine-containing products on a tobacco-free college campus and whether the first product tried predicts subsequent tobacco use.
METHODS: Undergraduate students (N=1,304) at a large university completed an online survey of past/current use of cigarettes; smokeless tobacco (SLT); hookah; ETPs (dissolvables, snus, and electronic cigarettes); and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Data were collected from September 2012 to May 2013 and analyses were conducted from June to September 2013. Students were classified as single, dual, or poly tobacco users.
RESULTS: The sample consisted of 79.5% non-users, 13.8% single, 4.4% dual, and 1.5% poly users. Overall, 49.4% of participants reported trying a tobacco product. Hookah was the most tried product (38%), but cigarettes were most often the first product ever tried (51%). First product tried did not predict current tobacco use and non-use, but individuals who first tried SLT or cigarettes (rather than hookah or ETPs) were more likely to be poly tobacco users. Current tobacco users who first tried ETPs or hookah were largely non-daily users of hookah; current tobacco users who first tried cigarettes or SLT were largely non-daily or daily users of cigarettes/SLT.
CONCLUSIONS: Hookah and ETPs are increasingly becoming the first tobacco product ever tried by youth; however, uptake of ETPs is poor, unlike cigarettes and SLT, and does not appear to lead to significant daily/non-daily use of cigarettes and SLT.

PMID: 25528714 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Women and tobacco: A cross sectional study from North India.

Sat, 2014-12-20 06:55

Women and tobacco: A cross sectional study from North India.

Indian J Cancer. 2014 Dec;51(Supplement):S78-S82

Authors: Kathirvel S, Thakur JS, Sharma S

Abstract
Background: Tobacco is a leading risk factor for different types of diseases globally. Tobacco smoking by women is culturally unacceptable in India, but still women smoke tobacco at various times of their life. Aims: The aim was to estimate the prevalence and pattern of tobacco use among women and to study the associated sociodemographic factors. Settings And Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted among women aged 30 years or over in an urban resettlement colony for the migrant population at Chandigarh, India. Methodology: The study included women used tobacco products on one or more days within the past 30 days. Through systematic random sampling, 262 women were studied. As a part of the study 144 bidi smoking women were interviewed using detailed semi-structured questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics and hypothesis testing with Chi-squared test and logistic regression were done using SPSS 16.0 version. Results: Overall, the prevalence of tobacco use was 29.4% and that of bidi, zarda and hookah were 19.8%, 8.8%, and 2.7%, respectively. Around 6.2% women used tobacco during pregnancy. Teenage was the most common age of initiation of bidi smoking. Logistic regression analysis showed that the prevalence of tobacco use was high among Hindu unemployed women with no formal education belonged to scheduled caste, and those having grandchildren. Conclusions: This study highlighted high rates of tobacco use and explored both individual and family factors related to tobacco use among women. Affordable, culturally acceptable, sustainable and gender-sensitive individual and community-specific interventions will reduce the prevalence and effects of tobacco use.

PMID: 25526254 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Prevalence of Hookah Smoking in Relation to Religiosity and Familial Support in College Students of Tabriz, northwest of Iran.

Wed, 2014-12-17 06:00

Prevalence of Hookah Smoking in Relation to Religiosity and Familial Support in College Students of Tabriz, northwest of Iran.

J Res Health Sci. 2014;14(4):268-271

Authors: MohammadPoorasl A, Abbasi Ghahramanloo A, Allahverdipour H, Modaresi Esfeh J

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Hookah smoking has increased worldwide especially among youth and young adults and has been identified as an emerging threat to public health. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of hookah use and related factors in a sample of Iranian college students.METHODS: This study took place in Tabriz (northwest of Iran) in April and May 2011. The randomly selected sample consisted of 1837 college students. Data was collected in a survey. A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure religious belief, parental support and risk taking behaviors including hookah smoking. Logistic regression model was performed in data analysis.RESULTS: The prevalence of hookah smoking was 8.5% (CI95%: 7.3-9.9). After adjustment, being male (OR= 2.01), living in single house in comparison with living with parents (OR= 2.22), smoking (OR= 5.96) and ever drug abuse (OR= 3.02) were factors associated with students' hookah use.CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed a low prevalence of hookah smoking in Iranian college female students and revealed some of its associated factors. We demonstrated the co-occurrence of risky behaviors which emphasizes the importance of interventions aimed at reducing or preventing different high risk behaviors simultaneously.

PMID: 25503281 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Waterpipe tobacco smoking: what is the evidence that it supports nicotine/tobacco dependence?

Thu, 2014-12-11 06:18

Waterpipe tobacco smoking: what is the evidence that it supports nicotine/tobacco dependence?

Tob Control. 2014 Dec 9;

Authors: Aboaziza E, Eissenberg T

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) involves passing tobacco smoke through water prior to inhalation, and has spread worldwide. This spread becomes a public health concern if it is associated with tobacco-caused disease and if WTS supports tobacco/nicotine dependence. A growing literature demonstrates that WTS is associated with disability, disease and death. This narrative review examines if WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence, and is intended to help guide tobacco control efforts worldwide.
DATA SOURCES: PUBMED search using: (("waterpipe" or "narghile" or "arghile" or "shisha" or "goza" or "narkeela" or "hookah" or "hubble bubble")) AND ("dependence" or "addiction").
STUDY SELECTION: Excluded were articles not in English, without original data, and that were not topic-related. Thirty-two articles were included with others identified by inspecting reference lists and other sources.
DATA SYNTHESIS: WTS and the delivery of the dependence-producing drug nicotine were examined, and then the extent to which the articles addressed WTS-induced nicotine/dependence explicitly, as well as implicitly with reference to criteria for dependence outlined by the WHO.
CONCLUSIONS: WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence because it is associated with nicotine delivery, and because some smokers experience withdrawal when they abstain from waterpipe, alter their behaviour in order to access a waterpipe and have difficulty quitting, even when motivated to do so. There is a strong need to support research investigating measurement of WTS-induced tobacco dependence, to inform the public of the risks of WTS, which include dependence, disability, disease and death, and to include WTS in the same public health policies that address tobacco cigarettes.

PMID: 25492935 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Hookah pipes are associated with young people starting smoking, study finds.

Thu, 2014-12-11 06:18

Hookah pipes are associated with young people starting smoking, study finds.

BMJ. 2014;349:g7546

Authors: Wise J

PMID: 25491109 [PubMed - in process]

A review of air quality, biological indicators and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke exposure.

Sun, 2014-12-07 06:44

A review of air quality, biological indicators and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke exposure.

Tob Control. 2014 Dec 5;

Authors: Kumar SR, Davies S, Weitzman M, Sherman S

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: There has been a rapid increase in the use of waterpipe tobacco and non-tobacco based shisha in many countries. Understanding the impact and effects of second-hand smoke (SHS) from cigarette was a crucial factor in reducing cigarette use, leading to clean indoor air laws and smoking bans. This article reviews what is known about the effects of SHS exposure from waterpipes.
DATA SOURCES: We used PubMed and EMBASE to review the literature. Articles were grouped into quantitative measures of air quality and biological markers, health effects, exposure across different settings, different types of shisha and use in different countries.
STUDY SELECTION: Criteria for study selection were based on the key words related to SHS: waterpipe, hookah, shisha and third-hand smoke.
DATA EXTRACTION: Independent extraction with two reviewers was performed with inclusion criteria applied to articles on SHS and waterpipe/hookah/shisha. We excluded articles related to pregnancy or prenatal exposure to SHS, animal studies, and non-specific source of exposure as well as articles not written in English.
DATA SYNTHESIS: A primary literature search yielded 54 articles, of which only 11 were included based on relevance to SHS from a waterpipe/hookah/shisha.
CONCLUSIONS: The negative health consequences of second-hand waterpipe exposure have major implications for clean indoor air laws and for occupational safety. There exists an urgent need for public health campaigns about the effects on children and household members from smoking waterpipe at home, and for further development and implementation of regulations to protect the health of the public from this rapidly emerging threat.

PMID: 25480544 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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