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NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=((hookah) OR narghile) OR shisha
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Bibliometric analysis of scientific publications on waterpipe (narghile, shisha, hookah) tobacco smoking during the period 2003-2012.

Tue, 2014-04-15 06:43

Bibliometric analysis of scientific publications on waterpipe (narghile, shisha, hookah) tobacco smoking during the period 2003-2012.

Tob Induc Dis. 2014 Apr 13;12(1):7

Authors: Zyoud SE, Al-Jabi SW, Sweileh WM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Waterpipe tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. However, the evaluation of scientific output in the field of waterpipe tobacco smoking has not been studied yet. The main objectives of this study were to analyze worldwide research output in the waterpipe tobacco smoking field, and to examine the authorship pattern and the citations retrieved from the Scopus database for over a decade.
METHODS: Data from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2012 were searched for documents with specific words regarding waterpipe tobacco smoking as "keywords" in the title. Scientific output was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies: (a) total and trends of contributions in waterpipe tobacco smoking research between 2003 and 2012; (b) authorship patterns and research productivity; (c) collaboration patterns; (d) the citations received by the publications; and (e) areas of interest of the published papers.
RESULTS: Worldwide there were 334 publications that met the criteria during the study period. The largest number of publications in waterpipe tobacco smoking were from the United States of America (USA) (33.5%), followed by Lebanon (15.3%), and France (10.5%). The total number of citations at the time of data analysis (October 18, 2013) was 4,352, with an average of 13 citations per document and a median (interquartile range) of 4.0 (1.0-16.0). The h-index of the retrieved documents was 34. The highest h-index by country was 27 for the USA, followed by 20 for Syrian Arab Republic and Lebanon.
CONCLUSIONS: The present data reveal a promising rise and a good start for research activity in the field of waterpipe tobacco smoking. More effort is needed to bridge the gap in waterpipe smoking-based research and to promote better evaluation of waterpipe smoking, risks, health effects, or control services worldwide.

PMID: 24725483 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The relation of self-esteem and illegal drug usage in high school students.

Fri, 2014-04-11 07:02

The relation of self-esteem and illegal drug usage in high school students.

Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2013 Nov;15(11):e7682

Authors: Khajehdaluee M, Zavar A, Alidoust M, Pourandi R

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is the period of stress and strain. Researchers have shown that adolescents without strong social supports would have tendency towards smoking and drug abuse.
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between low self-esteem and illegal drug abuse.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were 943 grades nine to 12 high school students, from Sarakhs during 2010 - 2011. Adolescents participated in the study, completed two self-report questionnaires. The first questionnaire included questions about individual and family information, smoking and illegal drug abuse history, and the second was the Rosenberg's self-esteem scale.
RESULTS: 53.8% of participants were male (507 individuals). The mean Rosenberg self-esteem score was 19.8 + 5.2, and the most frequent obtained scores were from 22 to 30. The difference of Rosenberg self-esteem score test between students who did not use any substance and those who had a history of smoking or drug abuse like heroin, pills, alcohols, betel nut (Nas) and other drugs (such as Pan and Hookah) was significant (P < 0.001). But this difference was not significant for marijuana (hashish) and opium. The difference of mean self-esteem scores between adolescents who lived with both or one of the parents, and those who did not live with any of parents, was significant (P = 0.04). There was also a significant association between the number of children in the family and self-esteem score.
CONCLUSIONS: The current study showed significant association between the Rosenberg self-esteem test results and smoking, and illegal drug abuse like heroin, pills, alcohol, Nas, and other substances. Therefore, increasing self-esteem is essential for preventing the adolescents' emotional and behavioral disorders. This fact could guide us to the new approaches for smoking and drug-abuse prevention in adolescents.

PMID: 24719686 [PubMed]

Fallacies about Water Pipe Use in Turkish University Students - What Might Be the Consequences?

Fri, 2014-04-11 07:02

Fallacies about Water Pipe Use in Turkish University Students - What Might Be the Consequences?

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(5):1977-80

Authors: Alvur MT, Cinar N, Akduran F, Dede C

Abstract
Background: The popularity of the narghile waterpipe, also referred to as hookah, shisha or hubble-bubble has increased tremendously during the past few decades. The aim of this study was to expose perception of narghile among a representative sample of university students in Sakarya University campus. Materials and Methods: Written approval was taken from the local education authority. An anonymous questionnaire which was prepared by the investigators and contained 17 questions was administered. Nine of the questions were related to socio-demographic characteristics and eight were related to the students harm perceptions about waterpipe. A total of 1,320 questionnaries were received and after preliminary evaluation 1,255 (95.7%) were found to be suitable for evaluation. The data was evaluated in SPSS program by using percentages and averages. Results: The mean±SD age of the students was 20.8±2.29 years (min 18, max 32). There were 864 (68.8%) females and 391 (31.2%) males. A total of 6.3 % of the students (n=79) believed that waterpipe is not harmful because its smoke does not burn the lungs. Almost one-third (n=318) think that the carcinogenic chemicals are filtered while waterpipe smoke passes from the water; 12.1 % of the students (n=152) checked "true" for the statement of "waterpipe smoke contains no nicotine". It is seen that 14.0 % of the students (n=176) think waterpipe with fruit/ aroma is healthier than plain waterpipe. Conclusions: As a result of this study, it is found out that a substantial number of university students have false beliefs on harmful effects of waterpipe smoking.

PMID: 24716921 [PubMed - in process]

The frequency of shisha (waterpipe) smoking in students of different age groups.

Wed, 2014-04-09 06:14

The frequency of shisha (waterpipe) smoking in students of different age groups.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2014 Apr;24(4):265-8

Authors: Basir F, Khan MS, Ahmed B, Farooq W, Virji RN

Abstract
Objective: To determine the frequency of waterpipe smoking in students of different age groups. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: Karachi, Pakistan, from February 2012 to February 2013. Methodology: The subjects were divided into two age groups. Group-I comprised of 13 - 17 years old randomly selected students from O' Level schools in Karachi and group-2 included 23 - 27 years old undergraduate and postgraduate students again randomly selected from various institutions in Karachi. A questionnaire was filled with prior consent, basic education on waterpipe smoking was given, and all the questions of the survey form were explained to the subjects according to context. Results: In group-1, 39% students smoked waterpipe. Most students had been smoking waterpipe for the last 2 years. In group-2, 48% individuals smoked waterpipe, majority of smokers indulged in the last 5 years and among them, most were falling within the last 2 years. Conclusion: The frequency of waterpipe smoking in teenage students was 39% and older students for 48%. Social and recreational use of waterpipes is widespread among both groups despite being acknowledged by majority as a health hazard.

PMID: 24709241 [PubMed - in process]

Harmful effects of shisha: literature review.

Wed, 2014-04-09 06:14

Harmful effects of shisha: literature review.

Int Arch Med. 2014 Apr 4;7(1):16

Authors: Aslam HM, Saleem S, German S, Qureshi WA

Abstract
Tobacco is a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality across the world. A recently infamous way of smoking tobacco is shisha. Shisha smoking is also known as water pipe, hookah and Narghile smoking. The percentage of shisha smokers is on the rise rapidly spanning the globe. A literature review was conducted to identify all evidence on the epidemiological variations and health effects of shisha smoking. "Pub med" is used as a searching tool to identify all relevant empirical studies conducted worldwide. A qualitative overview of evidence is presented.Exposure to Shisha smoking is significantly associated with low infant weight, heart rate variations, hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Increased risk of carcinoma is also leagued with it including carcinomas of the pancreas and lung being at the forefront. In conclusion, this review identifies grounds of several adverse conditions being associated with the habit of shisha smoking. It also evaluates the relevant epidemiological variations around the globe. The review culminates in the importance of enlightening shisha smokers regarding its deleterious effects.

PMID: 24708750 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Hookah smoking and harm perception among asthmatic adolescents: findings from the Florida youth tobacco survey.

Wed, 2014-04-09 06:14

Hookah smoking and harm perception among asthmatic adolescents: findings from the Florida youth tobacco survey.

J Sch Health. 2014 May;84(5):334-41

Authors: Martinasek MP, Gibson-Young L, Forrest J

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence among Florida adolescents and is often viewed as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking by young adults. Asthmatic adolescents are at increased risk of the negative health effects of hookah smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine if hookah use and harm perception vary by asthma status.
METHODS: The Florida Youth Tobacco Survey was conducted in 2012 among 36,578 high school students. Secondary data analysis was conducted to compare the rates of hookah use among asthmatic youth to their nonasthmatic counterparts. Risk perception of hookah use compared to cigarette smoking was also assessed among asthmatic and nonasthmatic adolescents.
RESULTS: One in 5 high school students reported lifetime asthma. These asthmatic students have a significantly higher prevalence of hookah smoking and greater perception of hookah use as being less harmful than cigarette smoking, than their nonasthmatic counterparts. Among asthmatics, 12th graders and Hispanic students had the highest prevalence of hookah smoking.
CONCLUSION: Common misperceptions of hookah smoking as being less harmful than cigarette smoking are prominent among high school students in Florida and are greater among students with asthma than those students who do not have asthma. Efforts to increase education to dispel the myths surrounding hookah smoking as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking needs to exist at the high school level for both students with and without asthma.

PMID: 24707928 [PubMed - in process]

Shisha: is this addressed within smoking cessation in general practice?

Wed, 2014-04-02 06:15

Shisha: is this addressed within smoking cessation in general practice?

Br J Gen Pract. 2014 Apr;64(621):173

Authors: Mughal F, Meki A, Kassamali RH

PMID: 24686869 [PubMed - in process]

Tobacco use among 10th grade students in Istanbul and related variables.

Tue, 2014-03-25 06:15

Tobacco use among 10th grade students in Istanbul and related variables.

Asian J Psychiatr. 2014 Apr;8:69-75

Authors: Evren C, Evren B, Bozkurt M

Abstract
Aim of this study was to determine prevalence of cigarette smoking and hookah use among 10th grade students in Istanbul, Turkey, and to compare sociodemographic, psychological and behavioral variables according to frequency of tobacco use. Cross-sectional online self-report survey conducted in 45 schools from the 15 districts in Istanbul/Turkey. The questionnaire included sections about demographic data, family characteristics, school life, psychological symptoms and use of substances including tobacco, hookah, alcohol, marijuana, volatiles, heroin, cocaine, non-prescribed legal tranquillizers (benzodiazepines, alprazolam etc.) and illegal tranquillizers (flunitrazepam). The analyses were conducted based on the 4957 subjects. Trial at least once in life is observed as 45.4% for hookah use and as 24.4% for cigarette use. Risk of hookah and cigarette use was significantly higher in male students than in female students. Frequency of tobacco use is related with various sociodemographic, psychological and behavioral variables. Our data also shows that using tobacco and alcohol increases the risk of all the other substances use and these effects are interrelated. The data suggest that there is a link between tobacco use and substance use, psychological, behavioral and social factors. There is also a strong association between tobacco use and suicidal behavior as well as self-mutilative, impulsive, hyperactive, delinquent, aggressive and behavioral problems. The illumination of these relationships may be relevant in prevention and management of tobacco use as well as important problems, such as substance use, impulsivity, hyperactivity, delinquent, aggressive self-mutilative and suicidal behavior among 10th grade students in Istanbul.

PMID: 24655632 [PubMed - in process]

Change in Carbon Monoxide Exposure Among Water Pipe Bar Patrons.

Thu, 2014-03-20 06:14

Change in Carbon Monoxide Exposure Among Water Pipe Bar Patrons.

Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Mar 18;

Authors: Martinasek MP, Ward KD, Calvanese AV

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Water pipe (also known as "hookah") smoking is increasing around the world, including the United States, where water pipe bars have sprung up rapidly around college campuses. Users are exposed to several toxicants, including carbon monoxide (CO). We evaluated change in exhaled CO and estimated carboxyhemoglobin levels among water pipe bar patrons in Tampa, FL.
METHODS: Exhaled breath samples were obtained immediately before entering and after leaving 6 water pipe bars in Tampa, FL to measure CO boost and factors affecting CO change. Demographics, cigarette use status, and characteristics of water pipe use during the bar visit also were assessed.
RESULTS: Among the sample of 166 participants, mean CO increased from 6.5 parts per million (p.p.m.) to 58.2 p.p.m. (a 795% relative boost; p < .001). CO change was higher for patrons who were dual (water pipe plus cigarette) smokers compared with water pipe-only smokers, and significant factors of CO change were frequency of water pipe use, number of charcoals, number of tobacco bowls, and time spent in the bar (all p-values < .05).
CONCLUSION: U.S. water pipe bar patrons are exposed to considerable amounts of CO, which could put them at risk of acute illness and chronic heart and lung diseases. Environmental and policy controls are needed to curb this increasingly popular tobacco use method in the United States.

PMID: 24642592 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Knowledge, attitude, and practice of water-pipe smoking among medical students in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Thu, 2014-03-20 06:14

Knowledge, attitude, and practice of water-pipe smoking among medical students in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

J Pak Med Assoc. 2014 Feb;64(2):155-8

Authors: Haroon M, Munir A, Mahmud W, Hyder O

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To assess knowledge, attitude and practice of water-pipe smoking among medical students.
METHODS: The cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaire was conducted at Rawalpindi Medical College, Rawalpindi, in 2011, and included all five batches of medical students. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis of the data.
RESULTS: The final sample comprised 724 participants; 505 (69.7%) being female and 219 (30.2%) being male students. Besides, 625 (86.6%) participants knew about shisha smoking, and 140 (22.4%) reported to have smoked shisha. Curiosity (n = 44; 31.4%) and social trends (n = 41; 29.2%) were cited as main reasons for shisha smoking. Overall, 572 (91.5%) participants thought shisha was dangerous for health, with majority 261 (41.8%) believing it to be more dangerous than cigarettes.
CONCLUSIONS: There was awareness among medical students about the hazards of shisha smokng. Even then water-pipe smoking was relatively common among them.

PMID: 24640803 [PubMed - in process]

Respiratory functions, levels of carbonmonoxide and oxidative stress in hookah smokers.

Wed, 2014-03-19 13:36
Related Articles

Respiratory functions, levels of carbonmonoxide and oxidative stress in hookah smokers.

Chest. 2014 Mar 1;145(3 Suppl):431C

Authors: Karaduman Yalcin F, Er M, Senturk A, Kilic H, Hasanoglu HC

Abstract
SESSION TITLE COPD IIISESSION TYPE: Slide PresentationPRESENTED ON: Monday, March 24, 2014 at 10:45 AM - 11:45 AMPURPOSE: Hookah is a tobacco smoking tool which is thought to be harmless than cigarette, and there is no adequate studies about its hazards to health, that is threatening the youth of the world today. In this study, we aimed to indicate the accumulated carbon monoxide levels in breath, examine the changes in respiratory function tests and indicate the effect of the parameters of oxidative stres in blood after smooking hookah.
METHODS: For this cross-sectional analytical study, hookah cafes were visited, that located in Ankara in Turkey. 50 people aged 18-40 years who smoke hookah, enrolled in the study and created the working group. The control group consisted of 50 people that the same age and sex, who had smoke neither cigarette nor hookah. Before and after smoking hookah, carbonmonoxide levels was measured in the breath and respiratory function test was performed. For the evaluation of the parameters of oxidative stress, blood were drawn after smoking hookah. Carbonmonoxide measurement in the breath, pulmonary function tests were performed and blood samples were taken from the control group, at any time.
RESULTS: Between the ages of 18 and 38, 100 people were included in the study. Before and after smoking hookah, CO values were measured 8,04 ppm and 28,08 ppm, respectively, and this increment was found significant. There was a significant reduction in respiratory function parameters values after smoking hookah. Parameters of oxidative stress in the blood after smoking hookah, were compared with the control group values and results were significantly increased.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed that, hookah smoking leads to deterioration in oxidative stress and respiratory functions. There has not been a study showing the effect of oxidative stress on the hookah. Therefore, more studies must be worked out about fight to hookah habit.
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: There is a misconceptions about hookah habit that it is less harmful than cigarettes, for this reason, hookah smoking is increasing especially among young people.
DISCLOSURE: The following authors have nothing to disclose: Funda Karaduman Yalcin, Mukremin Er, Aysegul Senturk, Hatice Kilic, Hatice Canan HasanogluNo Product/Research Disclosure Information.

PMID: 24638591 [PubMed - in process]

Alternative Tobacco Use among College Students: Who is at Highest Risk?

Wed, 2014-03-19 13:36
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Alternative Tobacco Use among College Students: Who is at Highest Risk?

Am J Health Behav. 2014 Mar;38(2):180-9

Authors: Enofe N, Berg CJ, Nehl EJ

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To examines smoking status, substance use, sociodemographics, and psychosocial characteristics in relation to alternative tobacco use among college students.
METHODS: Current tobacco use (cigarettes, cigar-like products, hookah, chew, snus) and correlates (sociodemographics, sensation-seeking, attitudes toward tobacco and smokers, social factors) were assessed among students aged 18-25 at 6 Southeastern US colleges using an online survey.
RESULTS: Those who were younger, male, black, cigarette and marijuana users, and demonstrating at-risk psychosocial factors were at increased risk of alternative tobacco product use (p < .001). Among current smokers, never daily nondaily smokers were 3 times as likely as former daily non-daily smokers and daily smokers to use alternative tobacco products (p < .001).
CONCLUSIONS: Important risk factors for alternative tobacco use included important sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics.

PMID: 24629547 [PubMed - in process]

Latent Classes of Young Adults Based on Use of Multiple Types of Tobacco and Nicotine Products.

Mon, 2014-03-10 02:45
Related Articles

Latent Classes of Young Adults Based on Use of Multiple Types of Tobacco and Nicotine Products.

Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Mar 6;

Authors: Erickson DJ, Lenk KM, Forster JL

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: New tobacco and nicotine products such as snus, hookah, and electronic cigarettes have risen in popularity in recent years. Use of these products among young adults is of particular interest given that experimentation with new products is common in young adulthood.
METHODS: We conducted latent class analysis among a population-based sample of young adults to identify separate classes based on use of 6 types of tobacco or nicotine products: snus, hookah, electronic cigarettes, cigarillos, snuff, and cigarettes. We then examined how identified classes differed on demographic characteristics and marijuana and alcohol use.
RESULTS: We identified 5 classes: the largest group (60%) was characterized as reporting no or limited use of any of the products, while the smallest group (7%) was characterized by use of many types of products ("poly-users"). Of the 3 middle classes, 2 were the same size (10%) and were characterized by primarily using 2 of the products: one class used snus and snuff, and the other used cigarillos and hookah; the third class (13%) was characterized by primarily cigarette smoking. Numerous differences were seen across classes, including the poly-users being less likely to be college students/graduates and more likely to be male and use marijuana and alcohol.
CONCLUSIONS: We found that young adults can be grouped into 5 subgroups based on types of tobacco/nicotine products they do and do not use. A poly-use group that uses all types of tobacco products is concerning, particularly given high levels of marijuana and alcohol use reported in this group.

PMID: 24604019 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Children's Exposure to Secondhand and Thirdhand Smoke Carcinogens and Toxicants in Homes of Hookah Smokers.

Wed, 2014-03-05 06:17

Children's Exposure to Secondhand and Thirdhand Smoke Carcinogens and Toxicants in Homes of Hookah Smokers.

Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Mar 3;

Authors: Kassem NO, Daffa RM, Liles S, Jackson SR, Kassem NO, Younis MA, Mehta S, Chen M, Jacob P, Carmella SG, Chatfield DA, Benowitz NL, Matt GE, Hecht SS, Hovell MF

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: We examined homes of hookah-only smokers and nonsmokers for levels of: indoor air nicotine, a marker of secondhand smoke, and indoor surface nicotine, a marker of thirdhand smoke; and child uptake of nicotine, the carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), and the toxicant acrolein, by analyzing their corresponding metabolites cotinine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and NNAL-glucuronides (total NNAL) and 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid.
METHODS: Data were collected during 3 home visits during a 7-day study period from a convenience sample of 24 households with a child, 5 years or younger. Three child urine samples, and 2 air and surface samples from the living room and the child bedroom, were taken in homes of nonsmokers (n = 5), and hookah-only smokers (n = 19) comprised of daily hookah smokers (n = 8) and weekly/monthly hookah smokers (n = 11).
RESULTS: Nicotine levels in indoor air and on surfaces in the child bedrooms in homes of daily hookah smokers were significantly higher than in homes of nonsmokers. Uptake of nicotine, NNK, and acrolein in children living in daily hookah smoker homes was significantly higher than in children living in nonsmoker homes. Uptake of nicotine and NNK in children living in weekly/monthly hookah smoker homes was significantly higher than in children living in nonsmoker homes.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide the first evidence for uptake of nicotine, the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen NNK, and the ciliatoxic and cardiotoxic agent acrolein in children living in homes of hookah smokers. Our findings suggest that daily and occasional hookah use in homes present a serious, emerging threat to children's long-term health.

PMID: 24590387 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease, including hookah smoking and opium use- a cross-sectional analysis of 50,000 individuals.

Tue, 2014-03-04 10:55

Determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease, including hookah smoking and opium use- a cross-sectional analysis of 50,000 individuals.

PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e89256

Authors: Islami F, Nasseri-Moghaddam S, Pourshams A, Poustchi H, Semnani S, Kamangar F, Etemadi A, Merat S, Khoshnia M, Dawsey SM, Pharoah PD, Brennan P, Abnet CC, Boffetta P, Malekzadeh R

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common cause of discomfort and morbidity worldwide. However, information on determinants of GERD from large-scale studies in low- to medium-income countries is limited. We investigated the factors associated with different measures of GERD symptoms, including frequency, patient-perceived severity, and onset time.
METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from a population-based cohort study of ?50,000 individuals in in Golestan Province, Iran. GERD symptoms in this study included regurgitation and/or heartburn.
RESULTS: Approximately 20% of participants reported at least weekly symptoms. Daily symptoms were less commonly reported by men, those of Turkmen ethnicity, and nass chewers. On the other hand, age, body mass index, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, opium use, lower socioeconomic status, and lower physical activity were associated with daily symptoms. Most of these factors showed similar associations with severe symptoms. Women with higher BMI and waist to hip ratio were more likely to report frequent and severe GERD symptoms. Hookah smoking (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02-1.75) and opium use (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.55-1.87) were associated with severe symptoms, whereas nass chewing had an inverse association (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-0.99). After exclusion of cigarette smokers, hookah smoking was still positively associated and nass chewing was inversely associated with GERD symptoms (all frequencies combined).
CONCLUSION: GERD is common in this population. The associations of hookah and opium use and inverse association of nass use with GERD symptoms are reported for the first time. Further studies are required to investigate the nature of these associations. Other determinants of GERD were mostly comparable to those reported elsewhere.

PMID: 24586635 [PubMed - in process]

Hookah, is it really harmless?

Tue, 2014-03-04 06:51

Hookah, is it really harmless?

Respir Med. 2014 Feb 8;

Authors: Blachman-Braun R, Del Mazo-Rodríguez RL, López-Sámano G, Buendía-Roldán I

Abstract
The hookah is a snuff smoking device whose origin dates back to the fifteenth century, has been used extensively in the Middle East in recent decades has become popular in Western culture countries, particularly in Americas and Europe. It has been reported that like other forms smoking tobacco, their use can lead to addiction also is used for inhaling and other addictive substances. Has also been considered a risk factor for various isolated diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), different types of cancer, hemodynamic alterations, vascular disease, infectious diseases, among others. In pregnant women has been reported that there use condition a diminution on fetal growth and different diseases in the newborn. It was also mentioned that hookah smoke contains several toxic substances that can affect both, the primary and the passive smoker, so we did this review to determine the complications associated with its use.

PMID: 24582881 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Prevalence of Potentially Malignant Oral Mucosal Lesions among Tobacco Users in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Thu, 2014-02-27 06:34

Prevalence of Potentially Malignant Oral Mucosal Lesions among Tobacco Users in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(2):757-62

Authors: Al-Attas SA, Ibrahim SS, Amer HA, Darwish Zel-S, Hassan MH

Abstract
Smoking is recognized as a health problem worldwide and there is an established tobacco epidemic in Saudi Arabia as in many other countries, with tobacco users at increased risk of developing many diseases. This cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal, potentially malignant or malignant, lesions associated with tobacco use among a stratified cluster sample of adults in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A sample size of 599 was collected and each participant underwent clinical conventional oral examination and filled a questionnaire providing information on demographics, tobacco use and other relevant habits. The most common form of tobacco used was cigarette smoking (65.6 %) followed by Shisha or Moasel (38.1%), while chewing tobacco, betel nuts and gat accounted for 21-2%, 7.7%, and 5% respectively. A high prevalence (88.8%) of soft tissue lesions was found among the tobacco users examined, and a wide range of lesions were detected, about 50% having hairy tongue, 36% smoker's melanosis, 28.9% stomatitis nicotina, 27% frictional keratosis, 26.7% fissured tongue, 26% gingival or periodontal inflammation and finally 20% leukodema. Suspicious potentially malignant lesions affected 10.5% of the subjects, most prevalent being keratosis (6.3%), leukoplakia (2.3%), erythroplakia (0.7%), oral submucous fibrosis (0.5%) and lichenoid lesions (0.4%), these being associated with male gender, lower level of education, presence of diabetes and a chewing tobacco habit. It is concluded that smoking was associated with a wide range of oral mucosal lesions , those suspicious for malignancy being linked with chewable forms, indicating serious effects.

PMID: 24568491 [PubMed - in process]

The Prevalence of Waterpipe (Shisha, Narghille, Hookah) Use Among Adults in Great Britain, and Factors Associated With Waterpipe Use: Data From Cross-sectional Online Surveys in 2012 and 2013.

Thu, 2014-02-20 06:15

The Prevalence of Waterpipe (Shisha, Narghille, Hookah) Use Among Adults in Great Britain, and Factors Associated With Waterpipe Use: Data From Cross-sectional Online Surveys in 2012 and 2013.

Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Feb 18;

Authors: Grant A, Morrison R, Dockrell MJ

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: To assess the prevalence and frequency of waterpipe smoking among adults (aged 18+ years) in Great Britain (GB), and determine demographic factors associated with use.
METHOD: Cross-sectional representative population surveys conducted online in 2012 and 2013. A total of 12,436 adults in 2012 and 12,171 in 2013 were recruited from a commercial online survey panel.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of "ever" use of waterpipe across both survey years combined was 11.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 11.0-12.1), "frequent" use (at least once or twice a month) was 1.0% (95% CI = 0.8-1.2) and were similar in both 2012 and 2013 albeit with some suggestion of increased "ever," but not "frequent," use among 18-24-year-olds between survey years. After adjustment for covariates, females had lower odds of ever waterpipe use than males (odds ratio [OR] = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.63-0.79), those in the lowest social grade had lower odds of use compared to those in the highest social grade (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.35-0.54), older people were at much lower odds of ever use than younger people, ever having smoked cigarettes increased odds of ever waterpipe use, and being Asian (OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.39-2.45) or mixed ethnicity (OR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.64-3.40) increased likelihood of ever use compared to White ethnicity. Frequent waterpipe smoking was relatively rare in these representative samples of the GB adult population, and prevalence was similar between 2012 and 2013. Continued monitoring and targeted interventions are appropriate.

PMID: 24550183 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Substance Abuse among Students of Zanjan's Universities (Iran): A Knot of Today's Society.

Wed, 2014-02-05 06:04

Substance Abuse among Students of Zanjan's Universities (Iran): A Knot of Today's Society.

Addict Health. 2013;5(1-2):66-72

Authors: Goreishi A, Shajari Z

Abstract
BACKGROUND: In order to assess the status of drug abuse and likely addiction among university students, a descriptive study was designed.
METHODS: 1200 subjects among the students of three universities in Zanjan were selected by stratified random sampling and their demographic information and history of substance abuse including hookah, cigarette, codeine, ibuprofen, alcohol, diazepam, tramadol, cannabis, opium, grass, heroin, crack, X pill, morphine, marijuana, Librium, and LSD were assessed by a standard questionnaire and were analyzed in 2010.
FINDINGS: The mean age of students was 21.3 ± 2.3 years (ranged 18-38 years) and the mean age of drug abuse onset was 19.45 years old. 48.2% of male students and 23.4% of female had a history of drug abuse at least once. 6.3% of males and 1.2% of female subjects were addicted constantly which the difference was statically significant (P < 0.001). 32.7% were motivated by pain and 13.3% seeking for pleasure. Hookah with 18% and LSD with 1% had the lowest and highest percentage of drug use, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Substance abuse was higher in males than females. Drug abuse was higher among older students with higher degree, and with psychological disorder history. It seems that we require goal directed programs to control and reduce the prevalence of substance abuse, raise students' awareness and increase students' information about substance disadvantages especially in their entrance.

PMID: 24494160 [PubMed]

Socio-demographic and Racial Differences in Acute Coronary Syndrome: Comparison between Saudi and South Asian Patients.

Fri, 2014-01-31 12:09
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Socio-demographic and Racial Differences in Acute Coronary Syndrome: Comparison between Saudi and South Asian Patients.

J Family Med Prim Care. 2013 Jan;2(1):64-8

Authors: Ferwana M

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is the leading cause of death in Saudi Arabia as elsewhere. Although, many studies found that South Asians had increased rates of ACS, others did not. The aim of the study is to explore the extent of difference between South Asians and Saudi presentation and risk factors of ACS patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients who were diagnosed as having acute myocardial infarction (AMI) based on World Health Organization (WHO) criteria in 6 month period were included in the study.
RESULTS: A total of 190 patients confirmed ACS were included; 121 (63.70%) were Saudi, 50 (26.3%) were South Asians, and 19 (10.0%) were other Arab nationalities. The mean age was 53.9 (SD 14.6). Out of the total South Asians 82% had normal body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.000). Saudi patients were the lowest of the three groups who smoked cigarette and/or shisha (26.6%; P = 0.000). 52.9% of Saudi patients were diabetics and 41.3% were hypertensive (P = 0.004). More South Asians were presented with chest pain (94% vs 76%).
DISCUSSION: South Asians had a double rate of ACS incidence; they were younger, lower socio-economic status, more cigarette smokers, and less diabetics and hypertensive than other patients. An association between the apolipoprotein E (apoE) genotype with the incidence of ACS in young South Asian is proposed.
CONCLUSION: South Asians had double rate of ACS incidence; they were younger, lower socio-economic status, more cigarette smokers, and less diabetics and hypertensive than other patients.

PMID: 24479047 [PubMed]

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