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Prevalence of Hookah Smoking in Relation to Religiosity and Familial Support in College Students of Tabriz, northwest of Iran.

Wed, 2014-12-17 06:00

Prevalence of Hookah Smoking in Relation to Religiosity and Familial Support in College Students of Tabriz, northwest of Iran.

J Res Health Sci. 2014;14(4):268-271

Authors: MohammadPoorasl A, Abbasi Ghahramanloo A, Allahverdipour H, Modaresi Esfeh J

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Hookah smoking has increased worldwide especially among youth and young adults and has been identified as an emerging threat to public health. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of hookah use and related factors in a sample of Iranian college students.METHODS: This study took place in Tabriz (northwest of Iran) in April and May 2011. The randomly selected sample consisted of 1837 college students. Data was collected in a survey. A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure religious belief, parental support and risk taking behaviors including hookah smoking. Logistic regression model was performed in data analysis.RESULTS: The prevalence of hookah smoking was 8.5% (CI95%: 7.3-9.9). After adjustment, being male (OR= 2.01), living in single house in comparison with living with parents (OR= 2.22), smoking (OR= 5.96) and ever drug abuse (OR= 3.02) were factors associated with students' hookah use.CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed a low prevalence of hookah smoking in Iranian college female students and revealed some of its associated factors. We demonstrated the co-occurrence of risky behaviors which emphasizes the importance of interventions aimed at reducing or preventing different high risk behaviors simultaneously.

PMID: 25503281 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Waterpipe tobacco smoking: what is the evidence that it supports nicotine/tobacco dependence?

Thu, 2014-12-11 06:18

Waterpipe tobacco smoking: what is the evidence that it supports nicotine/tobacco dependence?

Tob Control. 2014 Dec 9;

Authors: Aboaziza E, Eissenberg T

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) involves passing tobacco smoke through water prior to inhalation, and has spread worldwide. This spread becomes a public health concern if it is associated with tobacco-caused disease and if WTS supports tobacco/nicotine dependence. A growing literature demonstrates that WTS is associated with disability, disease and death. This narrative review examines if WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence, and is intended to help guide tobacco control efforts worldwide.
DATA SOURCES: PUBMED search using: (("waterpipe" or "narghile" or "arghile" or "shisha" or "goza" or "narkeela" or "hookah" or "hubble bubble")) AND ("dependence" or "addiction").
STUDY SELECTION: Excluded were articles not in English, without original data, and that were not topic-related. Thirty-two articles were included with others identified by inspecting reference lists and other sources.
DATA SYNTHESIS: WTS and the delivery of the dependence-producing drug nicotine were examined, and then the extent to which the articles addressed WTS-induced nicotine/dependence explicitly, as well as implicitly with reference to criteria for dependence outlined by the WHO.
CONCLUSIONS: WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence because it is associated with nicotine delivery, and because some smokers experience withdrawal when they abstain from waterpipe, alter their behaviour in order to access a waterpipe and have difficulty quitting, even when motivated to do so. There is a strong need to support research investigating measurement of WTS-induced tobacco dependence, to inform the public of the risks of WTS, which include dependence, disability, disease and death, and to include WTS in the same public health policies that address tobacco cigarettes.

PMID: 25492935 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Hookah pipes are associated with young people starting smoking, study finds.

Thu, 2014-12-11 06:18

Hookah pipes are associated with young people starting smoking, study finds.

BMJ. 2014;349:g7546

Authors: Wise J

PMID: 25491109 [PubMed - in process]

A review of air quality, biological indicators and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke exposure.

Sun, 2014-12-07 06:44

A review of air quality, biological indicators and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke exposure.

Tob Control. 2014 Dec 5;

Authors: Kumar SR, Davies S, Weitzman M, Sherman S

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: There has been a rapid increase in the use of waterpipe tobacco and non-tobacco based shisha in many countries. Understanding the impact and effects of second-hand smoke (SHS) from cigarette was a crucial factor in reducing cigarette use, leading to clean indoor air laws and smoking bans. This article reviews what is known about the effects of SHS exposure from waterpipes.
DATA SOURCES: We used PubMed and EMBASE to review the literature. Articles were grouped into quantitative measures of air quality and biological markers, health effects, exposure across different settings, different types of shisha and use in different countries.
STUDY SELECTION: Criteria for study selection were based on the key words related to SHS: waterpipe, hookah, shisha and third-hand smoke.
DATA EXTRACTION: Independent extraction with two reviewers was performed with inclusion criteria applied to articles on SHS and waterpipe/hookah/shisha. We excluded articles related to pregnancy or prenatal exposure to SHS, animal studies, and non-specific source of exposure as well as articles not written in English.
DATA SYNTHESIS: A primary literature search yielded 54 articles, of which only 11 were included based on relevance to SHS from a waterpipe/hookah/shisha.
CONCLUSIONS: The negative health consequences of second-hand waterpipe exposure have major implications for clean indoor air laws and for occupational safety. There exists an urgent need for public health campaigns about the effects on children and household members from smoking waterpipe at home, and for further development and implementation of regulations to protect the health of the public from this rapidly emerging threat.

PMID: 25480544 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Prevalence, Knowledge, and Practices of Hookah Smoking Among University Students, Florida, 2012.

Fri, 2014-12-05 06:44

Prevalence, Knowledge, and Practices of Hookah Smoking Among University Students, Florida, 2012.

Prev Chronic Dis. 2014;11:E214

Authors: Rahman S, Chang L, Hadgu S, Salinas-Miranda AA, Corvin J

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Although hookah smoking is becoming a source of tobacco use among college students in the United States, little is known of the students' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding hookah use. This cross-sectional study was aimed at determining the prevalence of hookah use and describing social and behavioral factors associated with hookah smoking among university students in a large urban university in Florida.
METHODS: A convenience sample of 478 undergraduate and graduate students was recruited. Lifetime use and current use was evaluated. Logistic regression modeling was used to assess the independent association between study covariates and hookah use.
RESULTS: Prevalence among students of having ever used hookah during their lifetime was 54.4%. Hookah use within the past 30 days was 16.3%. Hookah use was significantly associated with cigarette smoking (odds ratio [OR], 4.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.13-9.60) and hookah ownership (OR, 10.67; 95% CI, 4.83-23.66) but not with alcohol use (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 0.74-4.04). Findings also suggest hookah is perceived as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking. Almost 30% of those who never smoked hookah reported they would consider smoking hookah in the future.
CONCLUSION: Hookah smoking is popular among college students. Misperceptions associated with hookah use indicate a starting point for developing health behavior change interventions. Future studies should investigate social and behavioral determinants of hookah use and determine the incidence of hookah use among college and high school students. Tobacco control activities should include prevention of hookah tobacco use in university settings.

PMID: 25474386 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Oral cancer in young Jordanians: potential association with frequency of narghile smoking.

Wed, 2014-12-03 06:12

Oral cancer in young Jordanians: potential association with frequency of narghile smoking.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2014 Nov;118(5):560-5

Authors: Al-Amad SH, Awad MA, Nimri O

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between narghile (water-pipe) smoking and the age of patients when diagnosed with oral cancer.
STUDY DESIGN: Patients with oral cancer registered in the Jordanian National Cancer Registry were asked about frequency of cigarette, narghile, and alcohol use. Relationship between age at diagnosis and risk factors was assessed using multiple regression analysis.
RESULTS: In this sample, 66% of patients were cigarette smokers, and 36% and 17% were narghile smokers and alcohol drinkers, respectively. The multivariate regression analysis adjusted for sex, cigarette smoking, and alcohol drinking found that narghile smokers were significantly younger when diagnosed with oral cancer compared with nonsmokers.
CONCLUSIONS: Narghile smoking is an independent risk factor associated with the development of oral cancer at a younger age. Prospective studies of its effect on the earlier development of oral cancer are needed to establish a cause-effect relationship.

PMID: 25442492 [PubMed - in process]

Patterns of combustible tobacco use in U.S. young adults and potential response to graphic cigarette health warning labels.

Tue, 2014-12-02 06:54

Patterns of combustible tobacco use in U.S. young adults and potential response to graphic cigarette health warning labels.

Addict Behav. 2014 Nov 21;42C:119-125

Authors: Villanti AC, Pearson JL, Cantrell J, Vallone DM, Rath JM

Abstract
In the evolving landscape of tobacco use, it remains unclear how tobacco control efforts should be designed and promoted for maximum impact. The current study links the identification of latent classes of young adult combustible tobacco users with anticipated responses to graphic health warning labels (HWLs). Data were collected in January 2012 using an online address-based panel as part of the Legacy Young Adult Cohort Study, and analyses were conducted in 2013. Latent class analyses identified five groups of tobacco users in a national sample of 4,236 young adults aged 18-34years: (1) little cigar/cigarillo/bidi (LCC) and hookah users (4%); (2) nonusers, open to smoking (3%); (3) daily smokers who self-identify as "smokers" (11%); (4) nondaily, light smokers who self-identify as "social or occasional smokers" (9%); and (5) nonusers closed to smoking (73%). Of the nonusers closed to smoking, 23% may be better characterized as at risk for tobacco initiation. Results indicate differences in the potential effectiveness of HWLs across classes. Compared to the daily "smokers," LCC and hookah users (RRR=2.35) and nonusers closed to smoking (RRR=2.33) were more than twice as likely to report that new graphic HWLs would make them think about not smoking. This study supports the potential of graphic HWLs to prevent young nonusers from using tobacco products. It suggests that the extension of prominent HWLs to other tobacco products, including LCCs and hookah tobacco, may also serve a prevention function.

PMID: 25437268 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Benzene Uptake in Hookah Smokers and Non-smokers Attending Hookah Social Events: Regulatory Implications.

Tue, 2014-11-25 06:43

Benzene Uptake in Hookah Smokers and Non-smokers Attending Hookah Social Events: Regulatory Implications.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Nov 21;

Authors: Kassem NO, Kassem NO, Jackson SR, Liles S, Daffa RM, Zarth AT, Younis MA, Carmella SG, Hofstetter CR, Chatfield DA, Matt GE, Hecht SS, Hovell MF

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Benzene is a human hematotoxicant and a leukemogen that causes lymphohematopoietic cancers, especially acute myelogenous leukemia. We investigated uptake of benzene in hookah smokers and non-smokers attending hookah social events in naturalistic settings where hookah tobacco was smoked exclusively.
METHODS: We quantified S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA), a metabolite of benzene, in the urine of 105 hookah smokers and 103 non-smokers. Participants provided spot urine samples the morning of and the morning after attending an indoor hookah-only smoking social event at a hookah lounge or in a private home.
RESULTS: Urinary SPMA levels in hookah smokers increased significantly following a hookah social event (P < 0.001). This increase was 4.2 times higher after hookah lounge events (P < 0.001) and 1.9 times higher after home events (P = 0.003). In non-smokers, urinary SPMA levels increased 2.6 times after hookah lounge events (P = 0.055); however, similar urinary SPMA levels were detected before and after home events, possibly indicating chronic exposure to benzene (P = 0.933).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide the first evidence for uptake of benzene in hookah smokers and non-smokers exposed to hookah tobacco secondhand smoke at social events in private homes compared with their counterparts in hookah lounges. Hookah tobacco smoke is a source of benzene exposure, a risk factor for leukemia.
IMPACT: Because there is no safe level of exposure to benzene, our results call for interventions to reduce or prevent hookah tobacco use, regulatory actions to limit hookah-related exposure to toxicants including benzene, initiate labeling of hookah-related products, and include hookah smoking in clean indoor air legislation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(12); 1-17. ©2014 AACR.

PMID: 25416714 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Association Between Electronic Cigarette Use and Openness to Cigarette Smoking Among U.S. Young Adults.

Sat, 2014-11-08 06:16

Association Between Electronic Cigarette Use and Openness to Cigarette Smoking Among U.S. Young Adults.

Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Nov 4;

Authors: Coleman BN, Apelberg BJ, Ambrose BK, Green KM, Choiniere CJ, Bunnell R, King BA

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and their potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes.
METHODS: Using data from the 2012-2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18-29 who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was employed to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year.
RESULTS: Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes-14.6% of whom reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18-24, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes.
CONCLUSIONS: Ever use of e-cigarettes, as well as other tobacco products, was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time, as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations.

PMID: 25378683 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Is There Evidence for Potential Harm of Electronic Cigarette Use in Pregnancy?

Wed, 2014-11-05 06:45

Is There Evidence for Potential Harm of Electronic Cigarette Use in Pregnancy?

Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2014 Nov 4;

Authors: Suter MA, Mastrobattista J, Sachs M, Aagaard K

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and other nicotine containing products is increasing among women of reproductive age. The short- and long-term effects of these products on both mother and fetus are unknown.
METHODS: Because e-cigarettes are nicotine delivery systems, we sought to conduct a comprehensive review of the effects of nicotine on the fetus.
RESULTS: In utero nicotine exposure in animal models is associated with adverse effects for the offspring lung, cardiovascular system and brain. In the lung, this included reduced surface area, weight, and volume, as well as emphysema-like lesions. In adulthood, exposed offspring demonstrate elevated blood pressure and increased perivascular adipose tissue. In the brain, exposure alters offspring serotonergic, dopaminergic, and norepinephrine networks, which in turn are associated with behavioral and cognitive impairments. We also review current data on the lack of efficacy of nicotine replacement therapy in pregnant women, and highlight different nicotine containing products such as snuff, snus, and hookah.
CONCLUSION: We conclude that no amount of nicotine is known to be safe during pregnancy, and studies specifically addressing this risk are crucial and an imminent public health issue. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

PMID: 25366492 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Multiple tobacco product use among US adolescents and young adults.

Sun, 2014-11-02 15:35

Multiple tobacco product use among US adolescents and young adults.

Tob Control. 2014 Oct 31;

Authors: Soneji S, Sargent J, Tanski S

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the extent to which multiple tobacco product use among adolescents and young adults falls outside current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory authority.
METHODS: We conducted a web-based survey of 1596 16-26-year-olds to assess use of 11 types of tobacco products. We ascertained current (past 30?days) tobacco product use among 927 respondents who ever used tobacco. Combustible tobacco products included cigarettes, cigars (little filtered, cigarillos, premium) and hookah; non-combustible tobacco products included chew, dip, dissolvables, e-cigarettes, snuff and snus. We then fitted an ordinal logistic regression model to assess demographic and behavioural associations with higher levels of current tobacco product use (single, dual and multiple product use).
RESULTS: Among 448 current tobacco users, 54% were single product users, 25% dual users and 21% multiple users. The largest single use category was cigarettes (49%), followed by hookah (23%), little filtered cigars (17%) and e-cigarettes (5%). Most dual and multiple product users smoked cigarettes, along with little filtered cigars, hookah and e-cigarettes. Forty-six per cent of current single, 84% of dual and 85% of multiple tobacco product users consumed a tobacco product outside FDA regulatory authority. In multivariable analysis, the adjusted risk of multiple tobacco use was higher for males, first use of a non-combustible tobacco product, high sensation seeking respondents and declined for each additional year of age that tobacco initiation was delayed.
CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of current adolescent and young adult tobacco users in this study engaged in dual and multiple tobacco product use; the majority of them used products that fall outside current FDA regulatory authority. This study supports FDA deeming of these products and their incorporation into the national media campaign to address youth tobacco use.

PMID: 25361744 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Carbon monoxide poisoning following use of a water pipe/hookah.

Tue, 2014-10-28 06:08

Carbon monoxide poisoning following use of a water pipe/hookah.

Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2014 Oct 3;111(40):674-9

Authors: von Rappard J, Schönenberger M, Bärlocher L

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Water pipe (hookah) smoking has become a common activity in Germany, particularly among adolescents and young adults; in 2011, its lifetime prevalence was as high as 68.8%. Similar trends can be seen in other European countries. Water-pipe smokers are exposed to the same health-endangering substances as cigarette smokers, and the inhaled amount of carbon monoxide (CO) can be as much as ten times as high. In CO intoxication, carboxyhemoglobin is formed and causes direct injury at the cellular level, leading to hypoxia and nonspecific neuro logical manifestations. There have only been ten reported cases around the world of CO intoxication due to the use of a water pipe, and none of these were fatal. It should be recalled, however, that accidental CO intoxica - tion is common and is associated with high morbidity and mortality.
CASE PRESENTATION AND COURSE: We present a series of four young adults, aged 16 to 21, three of whom were hospitalized because of transient unconsciousness. The carboxy - hemoglobin (CO-Hb) content of the blood in the symp - tomatic patients ranged from 20.1% to 29.6%, while the asymptomatic patient had a CO-Hb content of 16.7%. Water-pipe smoking was the cause of CO intoxication in all four cases. The CO-Hb values were successfully brought down by the administration of highly concentrated oxygen and all patients were discharged in asymptomatic condition.
CONCLUSION: This case series reveals that CO intoxication due to water-pipe smoking is probably more common than is generally realized. Emergency room staff should be aware of this problem and inquire specifically about water-pipe smoking in patients with nonspecific neuro - logical manifestations.

PMID: 25346357 [PubMed - in process]

Waterpipes and Electronic Cigarettes: Increasing Prevalence and Expanding Science.

Thu, 2014-10-23 06:27

Waterpipes and Electronic Cigarettes: Increasing Prevalence and Expanding Science.

Chem Res Toxicol. 2014 Aug 18;27(8):1336-1343

Authors: Pepper JK, Eissenberg T

Abstract
The prevalence of noncigarette tobacco product use is on the rise across the globe, especially for waterpipes (also known as hookah, narghile, and shisha) and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). The scientific literature reveals that waterpipe tobacco smoking is associated with exposure to a variety of toxicants that can cause short- and long-term adverse health events. In contrast, there is far less evidence of health harms related to e-cigarette use, although the variety of products in this category makes it difficult to generalize. We searched the PubMed database for all publications on waterpipes and e-cigarettes from January 2000 to March 2014. The number of publications on waterpipes rose in a slow, linear pattern during this time, while the number of publications on e-cigarettes showed exponential growth. The different trends suggest there may be more interest in studying a novel nicotine product (the e-cigarette) over a traditional tobacco product (the waterpipe). We posit that, although the specific research needs for these products are different, public health would be served best by a more equitable research approach. Scientists should continue to devote attention to understanding the unknown long-term health effects of e-cigarettes and their potential to serve as harm reduction or smoking cessation tools while simultaneously investigating how to reduce waterpipe smoking given that it exposes users to toxicants known to cause harm to health. Recent regulatory action in the United States, which proposes to include waterpipes and e-cigarettes under some of the same regulations as tobacco cigarettes, makes such research particularly timely.

PMID: 25338174 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A Case of Eosinophilic Pneumonia Following Recent Onset of Hookah Smoking.

Wed, 2014-10-22 15:23

A Case of Eosinophilic Pneumonia Following Recent Onset of Hookah Smoking.

Chest. 2014 Oct 1;146(4_MeetingAbstracts):406A

Authors: Dyal H, Singhvi A, Patel R, Mendez M, Thavarajah K, Jennings J

Abstract
SESSION TITLE: ILD Student/Resident Case Report PostersSESSION TYPE: Medical Student/Resident Case ReportPRESENTED ON: Tuesday, October 28, 2014 at 01:30 PM - 02:30 PMINTRODUCTION: We report a case of acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) following recent onset of hookah smoking. Various inhalational exposures have been associated with AEP, however to our knowledge, this is the first report of AEP in conjunction with hookah smoking.CASE PRESENTATION: A 26-year-old Middle Eastern female was admitted with cough, dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain and fever for two days. She had no significant medical history. She denied smoking, toxic exposures or use of illicit drugs. On admission, she was afebrile, tachycardic, normotensive, tachypneic and had normal oxygen saturation on ambient air. She had rhonchi and bibasilar crackles. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 47mm/hr. The following tests had normal or negative results: hemoglobin level, white blood cell count and differential, platelet count, levels of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody and antinuclear antibody, HIV ELISA and legionella serology. Initial chest radiograph was unremarkable. Spiral computed tomography of the chest revealed multiple tiny nodular opacities in the right lower lobe adjacent to peribronchovascular bundles (Fig 1). The patient continued to deteriorate and was also febrile, despite antibiotics. Chest radiograph on day 3 showed bilateral pulmonary opacities (Fig 2). She was hypoxic requiring supplemental oxygen necessitating transfer to the intensive care unit where she admitted to smoking hookah for the past month. Following intubation on day 4, bronchoscopy was performed and bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 261/ mm3 white blood cells with 61% eosinophils. She was diagnosed with AEP. Antibiotics were discontinued and treatment with prednisone was started with good response. She was discharged on a prednisone taper for thirteen weeks.DISCUSSION: AEP is characterized by acute febrile illness, hypoxemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and pulmonary eosinophilia1. It is hypothesized to be an acute hypersensitivity reaction to an inhaled antigen in an otherwise healthy individual. A number of drugs and toxins have been associated with AEP. Antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most commonly reported drugs. Toxins suspected to cause AEP include cigarette smoke, marijuana and cocaine. AEP has also been noted to develop after exposure to smoke from fireworks, dust from collapse of the World Trade Center and in military personnel deployed in Iraq. However, to our knowledge, hookah smoking leading to development of AEP has not been described.CONCLUSIONS: In patients who present with respiratory failure and pulmonary in?ltrates after recent exposure to inhaled toxins, AEP should be considered as a possible diagnosis. As hookah use becomes increasingly prevalent, this will become a more frequently identi?ed cause of AEP.Reference #1: Allen JN, Pacht ER, Gadek JE, Davis WB. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia as a reversible cause of noninfectious respiratory failure. N Engl J Med 1989; 321:569DISCLOSURE: The following authors have nothing to disclose: Herman Dyal, Aditi Singhvi, Ruchir Patel, Michael Mendez, Krishna Thavarajah, Jeffery JenningsNo Product/Research Disclosure Information.

PMID: 25334431 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Water pipes and E-cigarettes: new faces of an ancient enemy.

Tue, 2014-10-21 06:37

Water pipes and E-cigarettes: new faces of an ancient enemy.

J Assoc Physicians India. 2014 Apr;62(4):324-8

Authors: Dagaonkar RS, Udwadi ZF

Abstract
In a world grappling with tobacco addiction, the hookah (water-pipe) and the electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) are creating new problems. Apart from posing the inherent danger of nicotine addiction, they both seem to be wolves cloaked in the sheep-skin of consumer-perceived safety, at least in comparison to the cigarette. However it seems that the e-cigarette may have a role in a nicotine-replacement therapy. There has been a wave of interest around the world in analysing these phenomena. The following review discusses the current data regarding the hookah and the e-cigarette. A PubMed, Medline and Google search using the keywords'sheesha', 'hookah', water-pipe', 'electronic cigarette', 'e-cigarette', 'vapers' was carried out.The studies carried out between 2007-2013 were included in this review. Information available in the public domain on internet websites was included to study the perception of the lay consumer regarding the hookah and the e-cigarette.

PMID: 25327035 [PubMed - in process]

The Changing Face of Tobacco Use Among United States Youth.

Sat, 2014-10-18 06:47

The Changing Face of Tobacco Use Among United States Youth.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2014 Oct 15;

Authors: Lauterstein D, Hoshino R, Gordon T, Watkins BX, Weitzman M, Zelikoff J

Abstract
Tobacco use, primarily in the form of cigarettes, is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States (U.S.). The adverse effects of tobacco use began to be recognized in the 1940's and new hazards of active smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure from cigarettes continue to be identified to this day. This has led to a sustained and wide-ranging array of highly effective regulatory, public health, and clinical efforts that have been informed by extensive scientific data, resulting in marked decreases in the use of cigarettes. Unfortunately, the dramatic recent decline in cigarette use in the U.S., has been accompanied by an upsurge in adolescent and young adult use of new, non-cigarette tobacco and nicotine-delivery products, commonly referred to as alternative tobacco products (ATPs). Commonly used ATPs include hookah, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and electronic cigarettes. While there have been a number of review articles that focus on adult ATP use, the purpose of this review is to provide an overview of what is, and is not known about emerging ATP use among U.S. adolescents on a national scale; as well as to identify research gaps in knowledge, and discuss future health and policy needs for this growing public health concern. This paper is not meant to systemically review all published survey data, but to present clear depiction of selected ATP usage in youth populations using national survey data.

PMID: 25323124 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Respiratory effects in children from passive smoking of cigarettes and narghile: ISAAC Phase Three in Syria.

Fri, 2014-10-10 16:57

Respiratory effects in children from passive smoking of cigarettes and narghile: ISAAC Phase Three in Syria.

Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2014 Nov;18(11):1279-1284

Authors: Mohammad Y, Shaaban R, Hassan M, Yassine F, Mohammad S, Tessier JF, Ellwood P

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and asthma symptoms is well documented, but a causal relationship is inconclusive. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Three was the first to report a dose-response relationship between current wheezing and exposure to parental cigarette smoke. As exposure of children to water pipe (narghile) smoke is of concern in Syria, in the ISAAC Phase Three Tartous Centre we also examined the role of parental smoking of the narghile.
METHODS: Parents of children aged 6-7 years completed core written questionnaires about the prevalence of symptoms, and an environmental questionnaire for other risk factors, including parental cigarette smoking. We added questions about narghile to the questionnaire.
RESULTS: Among 2?734 pupils (49% females) surveyed, we found an association between exposure to ETS of the mother smoking cigarette or narghile and ever wheezing, nocturnal cough and severe wheeze; however, the strongest association was found when the mother smoked narghile. Mother smoking narghile was also associated with exercise wheeze. Father smoking narghile, but not cigarettes, was associated with nocturnal cough, severe wheeze and exercise wheeze. The association with current wheeze became significant when mother smoked both cigarettes and narghile; however, the effect was addititive and not synergic.
CONCLUSION: We recommend that international studies investigating ETS include questions on narghile smoking.

PMID: 25299858 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The global epidemiology of waterpipe smoking.

Fri, 2014-10-10 06:14

The global epidemiology of waterpipe smoking.

Tob Control. 2014 Oct 8;

Authors: Maziak W, Taleb ZB, Bahelah R, Islam F, Jaber R, Auf R, Salloum RG

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: In the past decade, waterpipe smoking (a.k.a. hookah, shisha, narghile) has become a global phenomenon. In this review, we provide an updated picture of the main epidemiological trends in waterpipe smoking globally.
DATA SOURCES: Peer-reviewed publications indexed in major biomedical databases between 2004 and 2014. Search keywords included a combination of: waterpipe, hookah, shisha along with epidemiology, patterns, prevalence and predictors. We also used different spellings of waterpipe terms commonly used.
STUDY SELECTION: The focus was on studies with large representative samples, national data or high-quality reports that illuminated aspects of the epidemiology and trends in waterpipe smoking.
DATA EXTRACTION: Multiple researchers extracted the data independently and collectively decided on the most important and pertinent studies to include in the review.
DATA SYNTHESIS: Waterpipe smoking has become a global phenomenon among youth. The global waterpipe epidemic is likely driven by (1) the introduction of manufactured flavoured tobacco (Maassel); (2) the intersection between waterpipe's social dimension and thriving café culture; (3) the evolution of mass communication media; (4) the lack of regulatory/policy framework specific to the waterpipe. Waterpipe smoking is becoming the most popular tobacco use method among youth in the Middle East, and is quickly gaining popularity elsewhere. Important patterns of waterpipe smoking include the predominance among younger, male, high socioeconomic, and urban groups. Intermittent and social use are also noted patterns.
CONCLUSIONS: Waterpipe smoking has become a global public health problem. Developing surveillance, intervention and regulatory/policy frameworks specific to the waterpipe has become a public health priority.

PMID: 25298368 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Shisha..... modern society killer.

Fri, 2014-10-03 06:38

Shisha..... modern society killer.

J Pak Med Assoc. 2014 May;64(5):604

Authors: Khan MS, Shahid N, Qurrat-ul-Ain

PMID: 25272559 [PubMed - in process]

Perceived Harm, Addictiveness, and Social Acceptability of Tobacco Products and Marijuana Among Young Adults: Marijuana, Hookah, and Electronic Cigarettes Win.

Wed, 2014-10-01 06:48

Perceived Harm, Addictiveness, and Social Acceptability of Tobacco Products and Marijuana Among Young Adults: Marijuana, Hookah, and Electronic Cigarettes Win.

Subst Use Misuse. 2014 Sep 30;

Authors: Berg CJ, Stratton E, Schauer GL, Lewis M, Wang Y, Windle M, Kegler M

Abstract
Background: There has been an increase in non-daily smoking, alternative tobacco product and marijuana use among young adults in recent years. Objectives: This study examined perceptions of health risks, addictiveness, and social acceptability of cigarettes, cigar products, smokeless tobacco, hookah, electronic cigarettes, and marijuana among young adults and correlates of such perceptions. Methods: In Spring 2013, 10,000 students at two universities in the Southeastern United States were recruited to complete an online survey (2,002 respondents), assessing personal, parental, and peer use of each product; and perceptions of health risks, addictiveness, and social acceptability of each of these products. Results: Marijuana was the most commonly used product in the past month (19.2%), with hookah being the second most commonly used (16.4%). The least commonly used were smokeless tobacco products (2.6%) and electronic cigarettes (4.5%). There were high rates of concurrent product use, particularly among electronic cigarette users. The most positively perceived was marijuana, with hookah and electronic cigarettes being second. While tobacco use and related social factors, related positively, influenced perceptions of marijuana, marijuana use and related social factors were not associated with perceptions of any tobacco product. Conclusions/Importance: Marketing efforts to promote electronic cigarettes and hookah to be safe and socially acceptable seem to be effective, while policy changes seem to be altering perceptions of marijuana and related social norms. Research is needed to document the health risks and addictive nature of emerging tobacco products and marijuana and evaluate efforts to communicate such risks to youth.

PMID: 25268294 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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